231: Intervals and Generalized Arrays (Updated^2)

by Bradley J. Lucier

Status

This SRFI is currently in draft status. Here is an explanation of each status that a SRFI can hold. To provide input on this SRFI, please send email to srfi-231@nospamsrfi.schemers.org. To subscribe to the list, follow these instructions. You can access previous messages via the mailing list archive.

Abstract

This SRFI specifies an array mechanism for Scheme. Arrays as defined here are quite general; at their most basic, an array is simply a mapping, or function, from multi-indices of exact integers $i_0,\ldots,i_{d-1}$ to Scheme values. The set of multi-indices $i_0,\ldots,i_{d-1}$ that are valid for a given array form the domain of the array. In this SRFI, each array's domain consists of the cross product of intervals of exact integers $[l_0,u_0)\times[l_1,u_1)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$ of $\mathbb Z^d$, $d$-tuples of integers. Thus, we introduce a data type called $d$-intervals, or more briefly intervals, that encapsulates this notion. (We borrow this terminology from, e.g., Elias Zakon's Basic Concepts of Mathematics.) Specialized variants of arrays provide portable programs with efficient representations for common use cases.

This is a revised version of SRFI 179.

Rationale

This SRFI was motivated by a number of somewhat independent notions, which we outline here and which are explained below.

This SRFI differs from the finalized SRFI 179 in the following ways:

Overview

Introductory remarks

The next few sections talk perhaps too much about the mathematical ideas that underpin many of the procedures in this SRFI, so I discuss here some of the procedures and compare them to operations on spreadsheets, matrices, and imaging.

There are two procedures that simply create new arrays:

In the next group of procedures, the new and old arrays share elements, so modifications to one affect the others. Also, none of these procedures move any data: for specialized arrays they just change how the data are indexed, while for generalized arrays they manipulate the arguments of the getter and setter. For specialized arrays, these procedures can be combined in any way without increasing unreasonably the number of operations required to access an array element.

The following two procedures decompose arrays in different ways. They return generalized arrays whose elements are themselves arrays. Like the procedures described immediately above, the resulting subarrays share elements with their argument.

The next few procedures set up operations to be executed in the future. They build generalized arrays.

Then, there are procedures that do generate all elements of an array and either store them somewhere, or combine them in some way:

Finally, we have procedures that convert between other data and arrays:

I hope this brief discussion gives a flavor for the design of this SRFI.

Bawden-style arrays

In a 1993 post to the news group comp.lang.scheme, Alan Bawden gave a simple implementation of multi-dimensional arrays in R4RS scheme. The only constructor of new arrays required specifying an initial value, and he provided the three low-level primitives array-ref, array-set!, and array?, as well as make-array and make-shared-array. His arrays were defined on rectangular intervals in $\mathbb Z^d$ of the form $[l_0,u_0)\times\cdots\times [l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$. I'll note that his procedure array-set! puts the value to be entered into the array at the front of the variable-length list of indices that indicate where to place the new value. He offered an intriguing way to "share" arrays in the form of a procedure make-shared-array that took a mapping from a new interval of indices into the domain of the array to be shared. His implementation incorporated what he called an indexer, which was a procedure from the interval $[l_0,u_0)\times\cdots\times [l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$ to an interval $[0,N)$, where the body of the array consisted of a single Scheme vector of length $N$. Bawden called the mapping specified in make-shared-array linear, but I prefer the term affine, as I explain later.

Mathematically, Bawden's arrays can be described as follows. We'll use the vector notation $\vec i$ for a multi-index $i_0,\ldots,i_{d-1}$. (Multi-indices correspond to Scheme values.) Arrays will be denoted by capital letters $A,B,\ldots$, the domain of the array $A$ will be denoted by $D_A$, and the indexer of $A$, mapping $D_A$ to the interval $[0,N)$, will be denoted by $I_A$. Initially, Bawden constructs $I_A$ such that $I_A(\vec i)$ steps consecutively through the values $0,1,\ldots,N-1$ as $\vec i$ steps through the multi-indices $(l_0,\ldots,l_{d-2},l_{d-1})$, $(l_0,\ldots,l_{d-2},l_{d-1}+1)$, $\ldots$, $(l_0,\ldots,l_{d-2}+1,l_{d-1})$, etc., in lexicographical order, which means that if $\vec i$ and $\vec j$ are two multi-indices, then $\vec i<\vec j$ if and only if the least coordinate $k$ where $\vec i$ and $\vec j$ differ satisfies $\vec i_k<\vec j_k$. This ordering of multi-indices is also known as row-major order, which is used in the programming language C to order the elements of multi-dimensional arrays. In contrast, the programming language Fortran uses column-major order to order the elements of multi-dimensional arrays.

In make-shared-array, Bawden allows you to specify a new $r$-dimensional interval $D_B$ as the domain of a new array $B$, and a mapping $T_{BA}:D_B\to D_A$ of the form $T_{BA}(\vec i)=M\vec i+\vec b$; here $M$ is a $d\times r$ matrix of integer values and $\vec b$ is a $d$-vector. So this mapping $T_{BA}$ is affine, in that $T_{BA}(\vec i)-T_{BA}(\vec j)=M(\vec i-\vec j)$ is linear (in a linear algebra sense) in $\vec i-\vec j$. The new indexer of $B$ satisfies $I_B(\vec i)=I_A(T_{BA}(\vec i))$.

A fact Bawden exploits in the code, but doesn't point out in the short post, is that $I_B$ is again an affine map, and indeed, the composition of any two affine maps is again affine.

Our extensions of Bawden-style arrays

We incorporate Bawden-style arrays into this SRFI, but extend them in one minor way that we find useful.

We introduce the notion of a storage class, an object that contains procedures that manipulate, store, check, etc., different types of values. The generic-storage-class can manipulate any Scheme value, whereas, e.g., a u1-storage-class can store only the values 0 and 1 in each element of a body.

We also require that our affine maps be one-to-one, so that if $\vec i\neq\vec j$ then $T(\vec i)\neq T(\vec j)$. Without this property, modifying the $\vec i$th component of $A$ would cause the $\vec j$th component to change.

Common transformations on Bawden-style arrays

Requiring the transformations $T_{BA}:D_B\to D_A$ to be affine may seem esoteric and restricting, but in fact many common and useful array transformations can be expressed in this way. We give several examples below:

We make several remarks. First, all these operations could have been computed by specifying the particular mapping $T_{BA}$ explicitly, so that these procedures are in some sense "convenience" procedures. Second, because the composition of any number of affine mappings is again affine, accessing or changing the elements of a restricted, translated, curried, permuted array is no slower than accessing or changing the elements of the original array itself. Finally, we note that by combining array currying and permuting, say, one can come up with simple expressions of powerful algorithms, such as extending one-dimensional transforms to multi-dimensional separable transforms, or quickly generating two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional image data. Examples are given below.

Generalized arrays

Bawden-style arrays are clearly useful as a programming construct, but they do not fulfill all our needs in this area. An array, as commonly understood, provides a mapping from multi-indices $(i_0,\ldots,i_{d-1})$ of exact integers in a nonempty, rectangular, $d$-dimensional interval $[l_0,u_0)\times[l_1,u_1)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$, $l_k<u_k$ — the domain of the array — to Scheme objects. Thus, two things are necessary to specify an array: an interval and a mapping that has that interval as its domain.

Since these two things are often sufficient for certain algorithms, we introduce in this SRFI a minimal set of interfaces for dealing with such arrays.

We also consider as Scheme objects the case when $d>0$ and some $l_k=u_k$; in this case the mathematical cross product is empty, and arrays with such a domain have no elements but still "dimension" $d$. Applying the function associated with this array is an error.

Finally, we allow $d=0$; such an array would have one element, and the function that accesses it is a function with no arguments (i.e., a "thunk").

So an array specifies a multi-dimensional interval, called its domain, and a mapping from this domain to Scheme objects. This mapping is called the getter of the array, accessed with the procedure array-getter; the domain of the array (more precisely, the domain of the array's getter) is accessed with the procedure array-domain.

If this mapping can be changed, the array is said to be mutable, and the mutation is effected by the array's setter, accessed by the procedure array-setter. We call an object of this type a mutable array. Note: If an array does not have a setter, then we call it immutable even though the array's getter might not be a "pure" procedure, i.e., the value it returns may not depend solely on the arguments passed to the getter.

In general, we leave the implementation of generalized arrays completely open. They may be defined simply by closures, or they may have hash tables or databases behind an implementation, or may read the values from a file, etc.

In this SRFI, Bawden-style arrays are called specialized. A specialized array may be either mutable or immutable.

Sharing generalized arrays

Even if an array $A$ is not a specialized array, it could be "shared" by specifying a new interval $D_B$ as the domain of a new array $B$ and an affine map $T_{BA}:D_B\to D_A$. Each call to $B$ would then be computed as $B(\vec i)=A(T_{BA}(\vec i))$.

One could again "share" $B$, given a new interval $D_C$ as the domain of a new array $C$ and an affine transform $T_{CB}:D_C\to D_B$, and then each access $C(\vec i)=A(T_{BA}(T_{CB}(\vec i)))$. The composition $T_{BA}\circ T_{CB}:D_C\to D_A$, being itself affine, could be precomputed and stored as $T_{CA}:D_C\to D_A$, and $C(\vec i)=A(T_{CA}(\vec i))$ could be computed with the overhead of computing a single affine transformation.

So, if we wanted, we could share generalized arrays with constant overhead by adding a single layer of (multi-valued) affine transformations on top of evaluating generalized arrays. Even though this could be done transparently to the user, we do not do that here; it would be a compatible extension of this SRFI to do so. We provide only the procedure specialized-array-share, not a more general array-share.

Certain ways of sharing generalized arrays, however, are relatively easy to code and are not expensive. If we denote (array-getter A) by A_, then if B is the result of array-extract applied to A, then (array-getter B) is simply A_. Similarly, if A is a two-dimensional array, and B is derived from A by applying the permutation $\pi((i,j))=(j,i)$, then (array-getter B) is (lambda (i j) (A_ j i)). Translation and currying also lead to transformed arrays whose getters are relatively efficiently derived from A_, at least for arrays of small dimension.

Thus, while we do not provide for sharing of generalized arrays for general one-to-one affine maps $T$, we do allow it for the specific procedures array-extract, array-translate, array-permute, array-curry, array-reverse, array-tile, and array-sample, and we provide relatively efficient implementations of these procedures for arrays of dimension no greater than four.

Notational convention

If A is an array, then we generally define A_ to be (array-getter A) and A! to be (array-setter A). The latter notation is motivated by the general Scheme convention that the names of procedures that modify the contents of data structures end in !, while the notation for the getter of an array is motivated by the TeX notation for subscripts. See particularly the Haar transform example.

Notes

Specification

Miscellaneous Procedures
translation?, permutation?, index-rotate, index-first, index-last.
Intervals
make-interval, interval?, interval-dimension, interval-lower-bound, interval-upper-bound, interval-width, interval-lower-bounds->list, interval-upper-bounds->list, interval-lower-bounds->vector, interval-upper-bounds->vector, interval=, interval-widths, interval-volume, interval-empty?, interval-subset?, interval-contains-multi-index?, interval-projections, interval-for-each, interval-dilate, interval-intersect, interval-translate, interval-permute, interval-scale, interval-cartesian-product.
Storage Classes
make-storage-class, storage-class?, storage-class-getter, storage-class-setter, storage-class-checker, storage-class-maker, storage-class-copier, storage-class-length, storage-class-default, storage-class-data?, storage-class-data->body, generic-storage-class, char-storage-class, s8-storage-class, s16-storage-class, s32-storage-class, s64-storage-class, u1-storage-class, u8-storage-class, u16-storage-class, u32-storage-class, u64-storage-class, f8-storage-class, f16-storage-class, f32-storage-class, f64-storage-class, c64-storage-class, c128-storage-class.
Arrays
specialized-array-default-safe?, specialized-array-default-mutable?, make-array, array?, array-domain, array-getter, array-dimension, mutable-array?, array-setter, array-freeze!, array-empty?, make-specialized-array, make-specialized-array-from-data, specialized-array?, array-storage-class, array-indexer, array-body, array-safe?, array-packed?, specialized-array-share, array-copy, array-copy!, array-curry, array-extract, array-tile, array-translate, array-permute, array-reverse, array-sample, array-outer-product, array-inner-product, array-map, array-for-each, array-foldl, array-foldr, array-reduce, array-any, array-every, array->list, list->array, array->list*, list*->array, array->vector, vector->array, vector*->array, array->vector*, array-assign!, array-stack, array-stack!, array-decurry, array-decurry!, array-append, array-append!, array-block, array-block!, array-ref, array-set!, specialized-array-reshape.

Preliminary notes

We use take and drop from SRFI 1 to define various procedures.

Miscellaneous Procedures

This document refers to translations and permutations. A translation is a vector of exact integers. A permutation of dimension $n$ is a vector whose entries are the exact integers $0,1,\ldots,n-1$, each occurring once, in any order. We provide three procedures that return useful permutations.

Procedures

Procedure: translation? object

Returns #t if object is a translation, and #f otherwise.

Procedure: permutation? object

Returns #t if object is a permutation, and #f otherwise.

Procedure: index-rotate n k

Assumes that n is a nonnegative exact integer and that k is an exact integer between 0 and n (inclusive). Returns a permutation that rotates n indices k places to the left:

(define (index-rotate n k)
  (let ((identity-permutation (iota n)))
    (list->vector (append (drop identity-permutation k)
                          (take identity-permutation k)))))

For example, (index-rotate 5 3) returns '#(3 4 0 1 2). It is an error of the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Procedure: index-first n k

Assumes that n is a positive exact integer and that k is an exact integer between 0 (inclusive) and n (exclusive). Returns a permutation of length n that moves index k (with count beginning at 0) to be first and leaves the other indices in order:

(define (index-first n k)
  (let ((identity-permutation (iota n)))
    (list->vector (cons k
                        (append (take identity-permutation k)
                                (drop identity-permutation (fx+ k 1)))))))

For example, (index-first 5 3) returns '#(3 0 1 2 4). It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Procedure: index-last n k

Assumes that n is a positive exact integer and that k is an exact integer between 0 (inclusive) and n (exclusive). Returns a permutation of length n that moves index k (with count beginning at 0) to be last and leaves the other indices in order:

(define (index-last n k)
  (let ((identity-permutation (iota n)))
    (list->vector (append (take identity-permutation k)
                          (drop identity-permutation (fx+ k 1))
                          (list k)))))

For example, (index-last 5 3) returns '#(0 1 2 4 3). It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Intervals

An interval represents the set of all multi-indices of exact integers $i_0,\ldots,i_{d-1}$ satisfying $l_0\leq i_0<u_0,\ldots,l_{d-1}\leq i_{d-1}<u_{d-1}$, where the lower bounds $l_0,\ldots,l_{d-1}$ and the upper bounds $u_0,\ldots,u_{d-1}$ are exact integers. The nonnegative integer $d$ is the dimension of the interval.

If $l_k=u_k$ for some $k$ then the interval is empty; if $d=0$ then the interval is zero-dimensional. So rather than mathematical objects, it is perhaps better to think of intervals as pairs of vectors $L$ and $U$ for which $L_k\leq U_k$; $L$ or $U$ could be empty (hence $d=0$).

Intervals are a data type distinct from other Scheme data types.

Procedures

Procedure: make-interval arg1 #!optional arg2

Create a new interval. Assumes that arg1 and arg2 (if given) are vectors (of the same length) of exact integers.

If arg2 is not given, then the entries of arg1, if any, must be nonnegative, and they are taken as the upper-bounds of the interval, and lower-bounds is set to a vector of the same length with exact zero entries.

If arg2 is given, then arg1 is taken to be lower-bounds and arg2 is taken to be upper-bounds, which must satisfy

(<= (vector-ref lower-bounds i) (vector-ref upper-bounds i))

for $0\leq i<{}$(vector-length lower-bounds). It is an error if lower-bounds and upper-bounds do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(3 4)))
      (B (make-interval '#(0 0) '#(3 4))))
  (interval= A B))   ;; => #t

Procedure: interval? object

Returns #t if object is an interval, and #f otherwise.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(3 4)))
      (B 1))
  (interval? A)      ;; => #t
  (interval? B))     ;; => #f

Procedure: interval-dimension interval

Assumes interval is an interval; if interval is built with

(make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds)

then interval-dimension returns (vector-length lower-bounds).

It is an error to call interval-dimension if interval is not an interval.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(3 4)))
      (B (make-interval '#())))
  (interval-dimension A)   ;; => 2
  (interval-dimension B))  ;; => 0

Procedure: interval-lower-bound interval i

Procedure: interval-upper-bound interval i

Procedure: interval-width interval i

Assumes that interval is an interval made, e.g., with (make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds), and that i is an exact integer that satisfies

$0 \leq i<$ (interval-dimension interval).

Then interval-lower-bound returns (vector-ref lower-bounds i), interval-upper-bound returns (vector-ref upper-bounds i), and interval-width returns (- (vector-ref upper-bounds i) (vector-ref lower-bounds i)).

It is an error to call interval-lower-bound, interval-upper-bound, or interval-width if interval and i do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 4))))
  (interval-lower-bound A 0)  ;; => 1
  (interval-upper-bound A 0)  ;; => 3
  (interval-width A 0))       ;; => 2

Procedure: interval-lower-bounds->list interval

Procedure: interval-upper-bounds->list interval

Assumes interval is an interval built, e.g., by

(make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds)

Then interval-lower-bounds->list returns (vector->list lower-bounds) and interval-upper-bounds->list returns (vector->list upper-bounds).

It is an error to call interval-lower-bounds->list or interval-upper-bounds->list if interval does not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 4))))
  (interval-lower-bounds->list A)   ;; => (1 0)
  (interval-upper-bounds->list A))  ;; => (3 4)

Procedure: interval-lower-bounds->vector interval

Procedure: interval-upper-bounds->vector interval

Assumes interval is an interval built, e.g., with

(make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds)

Then interval-lower-bounds->vector returns a copy of lower-bounds and interval-upper-bounds->vector returns a copy of upper-bounds.

It is an error to call interval-lower-bounds->vector or interval-upper-bounds->vector if interval does not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 4))))
  (interval-lower-bounds->vector A)   ;; => '#(1 0)
  (interval-upper-bounds->vector A))  ;; => '#(3 4)

Procedure: interval-widths interval

Assumes interval is an interval built, e.g., with

(make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds)

Then, assuming the existence of vector-map, interval-widths returns

(vector-map - upper-bounds lower-bounds)

It is an error to call interval-widths if interval does not satisfy this condition.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 4))))
  (interval-widths A))     ;; => '#(2 4)

Procedure: interval-volume interval

Assumes interval is an interval built, e.g., with

(make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds)

Then, assuming the existence of vector-map, interval-volume returns

(apply * (vector->list (vector-map - upper-bounds lower-bounds)))

It is an error to call interval-volume if interval does not satisfy this condition.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 4)))
      (B (make-interval '#())))
  (interval-volume A)    ;; => 8
  (interval-volume B))   ;; => 1

Procedure: interval-empty? interval

Assumes interval is an interval; returns (eqv? 0 (interval-volume interval)).

It is an error to call interval-empty? if interval does not satisfy this condition.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 4)))
      (B (make-interval '#()))
      (C (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(1 4))))
  (interval-empty? A)     ;; => #f
  (interval-empty? B)     ;; => #f
  (interval-empty? C))    ;; => #t

Procedure: interval= interval1 interval2

Assumes that interval1 and interval2 are intervals built, e.g., with

(make-interval lower-bounds1 upper-bounds1)

and

(make-interval lower-bounds2 upper-bounds2)

respectively. Then interval= returns

(and (equal? lower-bounds1 lower-bounds2) (equal? upper-bounds1 upper-bounds2))

It is an error to call interval= if interval1 or interval2 do not satisfy this condition.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1)))
      (B (make-interval '#(1 1)))
      (C (make-interval '#(0) '#(1)))
      (D (make-interval '#(0 0)))
      (E (make-interval '#(0))))
  (interval= A B)      ;; => #f
  (interval= A C)      ;; => #t
  (interval= D E))     ;; => #f

Procedure: interval-subset? interval1 interval2

Assumes that interval1 and interval2 are intervals of the same dimension $d$. Then interval-subset? returns #t if

(>= (interval-lower-bound interval1 j) (interval-lower-bound interval2 j))

and

(<= (interval-upper-bound interval1 j) (interval-upper-bound interval2 j))

for all $0\leq j<d$. Otherwise, it returns #f. It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(2 3)))
      (B (make-interval '#(1 1)))
      (C (make-interval '#(3 1) '#(3 3))))
  (interval-subset? A B)   ;; => #f
  (interval-subset? B A)   ;; => #t
  (interval-subset? C A))  ;; => #f

Procedure: interval-contains-multi-index? interval . multi-index

Assumes that interval is an interval with dimension $d$ and multi-index is a multi-index (a sequence of exact integers) of length $d$. Then interval-contains-multi-index? returns (every <= (interval-lower-bounds->list interval) multi-index (interval-upper-bounds->list interval)).

It is an error to call interval-contains-multi-index? if interval and multi-index do not satisfy this condition.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(4 5))))
  (interval-contains-multi-index? A 2 1)   ;; => #t
  (interval-contains-multi-index? A 0 3))  ;; => #f

Procedure: interval-projections interval right-dimension

Conceptually, interval-projections takes a $d$-dimensional interval $[l_0,u_0)\times [l_1,u_1)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$ and splits it into two parts

$[l_0,u_0)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-\text{right-dimension}-1},u_{d-\text{right-dimension}-1})$

and

$[l_{d-\text{right-dimension}},u_{d-\text{right-dimension}})\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$

This procedure, the inverse of Cartesian products or cross products of intervals, is used to keep track of the domains of curried arrays.

More precisely, this procedure assumes that interval is an interval and right-dimension is an exact integer that satisfies 0 <= right-dimension <= d, in which case interval-projections returns two intervals:

(let ((left-dimension
       (- (interval-dimension interval right-dimension)))
      (lowers
       (interval-lower-bounds->list interval))
      (uppers
       (interval-upper-bounds->list interval)))
  (values
   (make-interval
    (list->vector (take lowers left-dimension))
    (list->vector (take uppers left-dimension)))
   (make-interval
    (list->vector (drop lowers left-dimension))
    (list->vector (drop uppers left-dimension)))))

It is an error to call interval-projections if its arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(2 3 1 5 4))))
  (call-with-values
      (lambda ()
        (interval-projections A 2))
    (lambda (left right)
      (interval= (make-interval '#(2 3 1)) left)    ;; => #t
      (interval= (make-interval '#(5 4)) right))))  ;; => #t

Procedure: interval-for-each f interval

This procedure assumes that interval is an interval and f is a procedure whose domain includes elements of interval. It is an error to call interval-for-each if interval and f do not satisfy these conditions.

interval-for-each calls f with each multi-index of interval as arguments, all in lexicographical order.

In particular, if interval is zero-dimensional, f is called as a thunk; if the interval is empty, then f is never called.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(3 2))))
  (interval-for-each (lambda (i j)
                       (display i) (display #\space)
                       (display j) (display #\space)
                       (display "=> ")
                       (display (and (even? i)
                                     (even? j)))
                       (newline))
                     A))

Displays:

0 0 => #t
0 1 => #f
1 0 => #f
1 1 => #f
2 0 => #t
2 1 => #f

Procedure: interval-dilate interval lower-diffs upper-diffs

Assumes that interval is an interval with lower bounds $\ell_0,\dots,\ell_{d-1}$ and upper bounds $u_0,\dots,u_{d-1}$, and lower-diffs is a vector of exact integers $L_0,\dots,L_{d-1}$ and upper-diffs is a vector of exact integers $U_0,\dots,U_{d-1}$. Then interval-dilate returns a new interval with lower bounds $\ell_0+L_0,\dots,\ell_{d-1}+L_{d-1}$ and upper bounds $u_0+U_0,\dots,u_{d-1}+U_{d-1}$, as long as this is a valid interval. It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Examples:

(interval=
 (interval-dilate (make-interval '#(100 100))
                  '#(1 1) '#(1 1))
 (make-interval '#(1 1) '#(101 101))) => #t
(interval=
 (interval-dilate (make-interval '#(100 100))
                  '#(-1 -1) '#(1 1))
 (make-interval '#(-1 -1) '#(101 101))) => #t
(interval=
 (interval-dilate (make-interval '#(100 100))
                  '#(0 0) '#(-50 -50))
 (make-interval '#(50 50))) => #t
(interval-dilate
 (make-interval '#(100 100))
 '#(0 0) '#(-500 -50)) => error

Procedure: interval-intersect interval . intervals

Assumes that all the arguments are intervals of the same dimension. If they have a valid intersection, then interval-intersect returns that intersection; otherwise it returns #f.

More precisely, interval-intersect calculates

(let* ((intervals (cons interval intervals))
       (lower-bounds (apply vector-map max (map interval-lower-bounds intervals)))
       (upper-bounds (apply vector-map min (map interval-upper-bounds intervals))))
  (and (vector-every (lambda (x y) (<= x y)) lower-bounds upper-bounds)
       (make-interval lower-bounds upper-bounds)))

It is an error if the arguments are not all intervals with the same dimension.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(2 5) '#(10 7)))
      (B (make-interval '#(0 6) '#(8 11)))
      (C (make-interval '#(2 6) '#(8 7)))
      (D (make-interval '#(1 1))))
  (interval= (interval-intersect A B) C)  ;; => #t
  (interval-intersect A D))               ;; => #f

Procedure: interval-translate interval translation

Assumes that interval is an interval, with, e.g., lower bounds $\ell_0,\dots,\ell_{d-1}$ and upper bounds $u_0,\dots,u_{d-1}$, and translation is a translation with entries $T_0,\dots,T_{d-1}$. Then interval-translate returns a new interval with lower bounds $\ell_0+T_0,\dots,\ell_{d-1}+T_{d-1}$ and upper bounds $u_0+T_0,\dots,u_{d-1}+T_{d-1}$. It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

One could define (interval-translate interval translation) by (interval-dilate interval translation translation).

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(2 5) '#(10 7)))
      (B (make-interval '#(1 6) '#(9 8))))
  (interval= (interval-translate A '#(-1 1)) B))  ;; => #t

Procedure: interval-permute interval permutation

Assumes that interval is an interval and permutation is a permutation with the same dimension as interval. It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Heuristically, this procedure returns a new interval whose axes have been permuted in a way consistent with permutation. But we have to say how the entries of permutation are associated with the new interval.

We have chosen the following convention: If the permutation is $(\pi_0,\ldots,\pi_{d-1})$, and the argument interval represents the cross product $[l_0,u_0)\times[l_1,u_1)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$, then the result represents the cross product $[l_{\pi_0},u_{\pi_0})\times[l_{\pi_1},u_{\pi_1})\times\cdots\times[l_{\pi_{d-1}},u_{\pi_{d-1}})$.

For example, if the argument interval represents $[0,4)\times[0,8)\times[0,21)\times [0,16)$ and the permutation is #(3 0 1 2), then the result of (interval-permute interval permutation) will be the representation of $[0,16)\times [0,4)\times[0,8)\times[0,21)$.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(4 8 21 16)))
      (B (make-interval '#(16 4 8 21))))
  (interval= (interval-permute A '#(3 0 1 2)) B))  ;; => #t

Procedure: interval-scale interval scales

Assumes that interval is a $d$-dimensional interval $[0,u_1)\times\cdots\times[0,u_{d-1})$ with all lower bounds zero, and scales is a length-$d$ vector of positive exact integers, which we'll denote by $\vec s$. Then interval-scale returns the interval $[0,\operatorname{ceiling}(u_1/s_1))\times\cdots\times[0,\operatorname{ceiling}(u_{d-1}/s_{d-1}))$.

It is an error if interval and scales do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(4 7)))
      (B (make-interval '#(2 4))))
  (interval= (interval-scale A '#(3 2)) B))  ;; => #t

Procedure: interval-cartesian-product . intervals

Assumes that all the arguments are intervals. Implements the Cartesian product of the intervals in intervals. Returns:

(make-interval
 (list->vector
  (apply append (map interval-lower-bounds->list intervals)))
 (list->vector
  (apply append (map interval-upper-bounds->list intervals))))

It is an error if any argument is not an interval.

Example:

(let ((A (make-interval '#(3 4)))
      (B (make-interval '#(1 2 3) '#(7 8 9)))
      (C (make-interval '#(0 0 1 2 3) '#(3 4 7 8 9))))
  (interval= (interval-cartesian-product A B) C))  ;; => #t

Storage classes

Conceptually, a storage-class is a set of procedures to manage the backing store of a specialized array. The procedures allow one to make a backing store, to get values from the store, to set new values, to return the length of the store, to specify a default value for initial elements of the backing store, to recognize which data can be converted to a backing store of this storage class, and to convert data to a backing store of this storage class. Typically, a backing store is a (heterogeneous or homogeneous) vector. A storage-class has a type distinct from other Scheme types.

Procedures

Procedure: make-storage-class getter setter checker maker copier length default data? data->body

Here we assume the following relationships between the arguments of make-storage-class. Assume that the "elements" of the backing store are of some "type", either heterogeneous (all Scheme types) or homogeneous (of some restricted type).

If the arguments do not satisfy these conditions, then it is an error to call make-storage-class.

Note that we assume that getter and setter generally take O(1) time to execute.

Procedure: storage-class? m

Returns #t if m is a storage class, and #f otherwise.

Procedure: storage-class-getter m

Procedure: storage-class-setter m

Procedure: storage-class-checker m

Procedure: storage-class-maker m

Procedure: storage-class-copier m

Procedure: storage-class-length m

Procedure: storage-class-default m

Procedure: storage-class-data? m

Procedure: storage-class-data->body m

Assumes that m is a storage class, created, e.g., by

(make-storage-class getter setter checker maker copier length default data? data->body)

Then storage-class-getter returns getter, storage-class-setter returns setter, storage-class-checker returns checker, storage-class-maker returns maker, storage-class-copier returns copier, storage-class-length returns length, storage-class-default returns default, storage-class-data? returns data?, and storage-class-data->body returns data->body. Otherwise, it is an error to call any of these procedures.

Global Variables

Variable: generic-storage-class

Variable: char-storage-class

Variable: s8-storage-class

Variable: s16-storage-class

Variable: s32-storage-class

Variable: s64-storage-class

Variable: u1-storage-class

Variable: u8-storage-class

Variable: u16-storage-class

Variable: u32-storage-class

Variable: u64-storage-class

Variable: f8-storage-class

Variable: f16-storage-class

Variable: f32-storage-class

Variable: f64-storage-class

Variable: c64-storage-class

Variable: c128-storage-class

generic-storage-class is defined as if by

(define generic-storage-class
  (make-storage-class vector-ref
                      vector-set!
                      (lambda (arg) #t)
                      make-vector
                      vector-copy!
                      vector-length
                      #f
                      vector?
                      values))

In the sample implementation char-storage-class is defined as

(define char-storage-class
  (make-storage-class string-ref
                      string-set!
                      char?
                      make-string
                      string-copy!
                      string-length
                      #\0
                      string?
                      values))

Implementations shall define sX-storage-class for X=8, 16, 32, and 64 (which have default values 0 and manipulate exact integer values between -2X-1 and 2X-1-1 inclusive), uX-storage-class for X=1, 8, 16, 32, and 64 (which have default values 0 and manipulate exact integer values between 0 and 2X-1 inclusive), fX-storage-class for X= 8, 16, 32, and 64 (which have default value 0.0 and manipulate 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit floating-point numbers), and cX-storage-class for X= 64 and 128 (which have default value 0.0+0.0i and manipulate complex numbers with, respectively, 32- and 64-bit floating-point numbers as real and imaginary parts).

Implementations with an appropriate homogeneous vector type should define the associated global variable using make-storage-class. Otherwise, they shall define the associated global variable to #f.

Arrays

Arrays are a data type distinct from other Scheme data types.

In the examples we use a procedure array-unveil that lists the multi-indices and elements of an array in lexicographical order:

(define (array-unveil A)
  (let ((D_A (array-domain A))
        (A_  (array-getter A)))
    (interval-for-each (lambda args
                         (for-each (lambda (arg)
                                     (display #\space) (display arg))
                                   args)
                         (for-each display
                                   (list " => " (apply A_ args) #\newline)))
                       D_A)))

For example:

(let ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(2 3 2)) list)))
  (array-unveil A))

displays:

 0 0 0 => (0 0 0)
 0 0 1 => (0 0 1)
 0 1 0 => (0 1 0)
 0 1 1 => (0 1 1)
 0 2 0 => (0 2 0)
 0 2 1 => (0 2 1)
 1 0 0 => (1 0 0)
 1 0 1 => (1 0 1)
 1 1 0 => (1 1 0)
 1 1 1 => (1 1 1)
 1 2 0 => (1 2 0)
 1 2 1 => (1 2 1)

Parameters

Parameter: specialized-array-default-safe?

A parameter as specified in SRFI 39. Initially, (specialized-array-default-safe?) returns #f. It is an error to call (specialized-array-default-safe? arg) if arg is not a boolean.

Parameter: specialized-array-default-mutable?

A parameter as specified in SRFI 39. Initially, (specialized-array-default-mutable?) returns #t. It is an error to call (specialized-array-default-mutable? arg) if arg is not a boolean.

Procedures

Procedure: make-array interval getter [ setter ]

Assume first that the optional argument setter is not given.

If interval is an interval and getter is a procedure from interval to Scheme objects, then make-array returns an array with domain interval and getter getter.

It is an error to call make-array if interval and getter do not satisfy these conditions.

If now setter is specified, assume that it is a procedure such that getter and setter satisfy: If

(i1,...,in) $\neq$ (j1,...,jn)

are elements of interval and

(getter j1 ... jn) => x

then "after"

(setter v i1 ... in)

we have

(getter j1 ... jn) => x

and

(getter i1,...,in) => v

Then make-array builds a mutable array with domain interval, getter getter, and setter setter. It is an error to call make-array if its arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

  (define a (make-array (make-interval '#(1 1) '#(11 11))
                        (lambda (i j)
                          (if (= i j)
                              1
                              0))))

defines an array for which (array-getter a) returns 1 when i=j and 0 otherwise.

Example:

(define a   ;; a sparse array
  (let ((domain
         (make-interval '#(1000000 1000000)))
        (sparse-rows
         (make-vector 1000000 '())))
    (make-array
     domain
     (lambda (i j)
       (cond ((assv j (vector-ref sparse-rows i))
              => cdr)
             (else
              0.0)))
     (lambda (v i j)
       (cond ((assv j (vector-ref sparse-rows i))
              => (lambda (pair)
                   (set-cdr! pair v)))
             (else
              (vector-set!
               sparse-rows
               i
               (cons (cons j v)
                     (vector-ref sparse-rows i)))))))))

(define a_ (array-getter a))
(define a! (array-setter a))

(a_ 12345 6789)  => 0.
(a_ 0 0) => 0.
(a! 1.0 0 0) => undefined
(a_ 12345 6789)  => 0.
(a_ 0 0) => 1.

Example: If an array A is empty, e.g., (make-array (make-interval '#(0 0)) getter setter), then it is an error to call getter or setter. Still, such arrays can usefully exist to simplify limit cases of some algorithms.

Example: (define a (make-array (make-interval '#()) (lambda () 42))) makes an array with a zero-dimensional domain whose getter takes no arguments and always returns 42.

Example: We can have the following interactive session, which builds a zero-dimensional mutable array:

> (define a
    (let ((contents (box 42)))
      (make-array
       (make-interval '#())
       (lambda ()
         (unbox contents))
       (lambda (val)
         (set-box! contents val)))))
> (define a_ (array-getter a))
> (define a! (array-setter a))
> (a_)
42
> (a! 23)
> (a_)
23

Procedure: array? object

Returns #t if object is an array and #f otherwise.

Procedure: array-domain array

Procedure: array-getter array

Assumes that array is an array built, e.g., by

(make-array interval getter [setter])

(with or without the optional setter argument). Then array-domain returns interval and array-getter returns getter. It is an error to call array-domain or array-getter if array is not an array.

Example:

(define a (make-array (make-interval '#(1 1) '#(11 11))
                      (lambda (i j)
                        (if (= i j)
                            1
                            0))))
(define a_ (array-getter a))

(a_ 3 3) => 1
(a_ 2 3) => 0
(a_ 11 0) => is an error

Procedure: array-dimension array

Shorthand for (interval-dimension (array-domain array)). It is an error to call this procedure if array is not an array.

Example:

(let ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(3 3)) list))
      (B (make-array (make-interval '#()) (lambda () 42))))
  (array-dimension A)   ;; => 2
  (array-dimension B))  ;; => 0

Procedure: mutable-array? object

Returns #t if object is a mutable array and #f otherwise.

Example:

(let ((A (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 2)) list)
                     generic-storage-class
                     #t))
      (B (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 2)) list)
                     generic-storage-class
                     #f)))
  (mutable-array? A)    ;; => #t
  (mutable-array? B))   ;; => #f

Procedure: array-setter array

If array is an array built by

(make-array interval getter setter)

then array-setter returns setter. Other procedures can build mutable arrays, e.g., array-copy. It is an error to call array-setter if array is not a mutable array.

Procedure: array-freeze! array

Modifies the array array so it is not mutable. Returns the modified argument.

It is an error if array is not an array.

Example:

(let ((array (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 2)) list)
                     generic-storage-class
                     #t)))
  (mutable-array? array)  ;; => #t
  (array-freeze! array)
  (mutable-array? array)) ;; => #f

Procedure: array-empty? array

Assumes array is an array, and returns (interval-empty? (array-domain array)). It is an error if the argument is not an array.

Example:

(let ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(2 2)) list))
      (B (make-array (make-interval '#(4 0 4)) list)))
  (array-empty? A)   ;; => #f
  (array-empty? B))  ;; => #t

Procedure: make-specialized-array interval [ storage-class [ initial-value [ safe? ] ] ]

Constructs a mutable specialized array from its arguments.

interval must be given an interval. If given, storage-class must be a storage class; if it is not given, it defaults to generic-storage-class. If given, initial-value must be a value that can be manipulated by storage-class; if it is not given, it defaults to (storage-class-default storage-class). If given, safe? must be a boolean; if it is not given, it defaults to the current value of (specialized-array-default-safe?).

The body of the result is constructed as

  ((storage-class-maker storage-class)
   (interval-volume interval)
   initial-value)

The indexer of the resulting array is constructed as the lexicographical mapping of interval onto the interval [0,(interval-volume interval)).

If safe is #t, then the arguments of the getter and setter (including the value to be stored) of the resulting array are checked for correctness.

After correctness checking (if needed), (array-getter array) is defined simply as

  (lambda multi-index
    ((storage-class-getter storage-class)
     (array-body array)
     (apply (array-indexer array) multi-index)))

and (array-setter array) is defined as

  (lambda (val . multi-index)
    ((storage-class-setter storage-class)
     (array-body array)
     (apply (array-indexer array) multi-index)
     val))

It is an error if the arguments of make-specialized-array do not satisfy these conditions.

Examples: A simple array that can hold any type of element can be defined with (make-specialized-array (make-interval '#(3 3))). If you find that you're using a lot of unsafe arrays of unsigned 16-bit integers, one could define

  (define (make-u16-array interval)
    (make-specialized-array interval u16-storage-class 0 #f))

and then simply call, e.g., (make-u16-array (make-interval '#(3 3))).

Example:

(let ((A (make-specialized-array (make-interval '#(2 3)) u8-storage-class 42)))
  (array-unveil A))

displays:

 0 0 => 42
 0 1 => 42
 0 2 => 42
 1 0 => 42
 1 1 => 42
 1 2 => 42

Procedure: make-specialized-array-from-data data [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

This routine constructs a new specialized array using data as part of the body of the result without copying.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

This routine exploits the low-level representation of the body of a specialized array of a specific storage class, and as such may not be portable between implementations. Here are several examples.

The sample implementation uses homogeneous vectors to represent the bodies of arrays with storage classes u8-storage-class, s8-storage-class, ..., s64-storage-class, f32-storage-class, and f64-storage-class. Another implementation might use byte-vectors as the bodies of arrays for all these storage classes.

The sample implementation uses homogeneous (f32 and f64) vectors with an even number of elements to represent the bodies of arrays with storage classes c64-storage-class and c128-storage-class. Another implementation with purely inexact complex numbers might make another choice.

Finally, the sample implementation uses (vector n (u16vector ...)) to represent the body of an array with a u1-storage-class, where n represents the valid number of bits (no more than 16 times the length of the u16vector). A Scheme with bitvectors might choose those as the underlying representation of bodies of arrays with u1-storage-class.

This routine assumes that mutable? and safe?, if given, are booleans, and that storage-class, if given, is a storage class. data must be an object for which ((storage-class-data? storage-class) data) returns #t.

This routine constructs a new one-dimensional array with storage class storage-class, mutability mutable?, safety safe?, body ((storage-class-data->body storage-class) data), with domain (make-interval (vector N)), where N is the greatest number of elements one can fit into data, and indexer (lambda (i) i).

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions, or if mutable? is true and data is not mutable.

Example:

(let ((A (make-specialized-array-from-data '#(dog cat bird))))
  (array-unveil A))

displays:

 0 => dog
 1 => cat
 2 => bird

Discussion: Correct transformations on specialized arrays require that the array's indexer, which maps the domain of the array to exact integers that index elements of the one-dimensional body of the array, be affine. The procedure make-specialized-array-from-data provides a structured way to turn externally-provided data into an array with a known, very simple, one-dimensional affine indexer. With this start, the programmer can apply array transforms (e.g., array-extract, specialized-array-reshape, etc.) to massage the data into the shape needed.

Example: To build a zero-dimensional array that stores its single element in a pre-existing vector, one could use the code:

(pretty-print
 (array->list*
  (specialized-array-reshape           ;; Reshape to a zero-dimensional array
   (make-specialized-array-from-data   ;; The basic one-dimensional array
    (vector 'foo))
   (make-interval '#()))))

prints simply

foo

Example: In the sample implementation, if you want to construct a $3\times3$ array with storage class u1-storage-class from a length-one u16vector named board then one could write

(let* ((board (u16vector #b111100110111))
       (A (specialized-array-reshape           ;; Reshape to a 3x3 array
           (array-extract                      ;; Only the first 9 elements
            (make-specialized-array-from-data  ;; The basic one-dimensional array
             board u1-storage-class)
            (make-interval '#(9)))
           (make-interval '#(3 3))))
       (B (list->array (make-interval '#(3 3)) ;; Another array with same elements
                       '(1 1 1
                         0 1 1
                         0 0 1)
                       u1-storage-class)))
  (define (pad n s)
    (string-append (make-string (- n (string-length s)) #\0) s))

  (for-each display (list "(array-every = A B) => " (array-every = A B) #\newline))
  (for-each display (list "(array-body A) => " (array-body A) #\newline))
  (for-each display (list "(array-body B) => " (array-body B) #\newline))
  (for-each
   display
   (list "(pad 16 (number->string (u16vector-ref (vector-ref (array-body A) 1) 0) 2)) => "
         #\newline
         (pad 16 (number->string (u16vector-ref (vector-ref (array-body A) 1) 0) 2))
         #\newline))
  (for-each
   display
   (list "(pad 16 (number->string (u16vector-ref (vector-ref (array-body B) 1) 0) 2)) => "
         #\newline
         (pad 16 (number->string (u16vector-ref (vector-ref (array-body B) 1) 0) 2))
         #\newline)))

prints

(array-every = A B) => #t
(array-body A) => #(16 #u16(3895))
(array-body B) => #(9 #u16(311))
(pad 16 (number->string (u16vector-ref (vector-ref (array-body A) 1) 0) 2)) =>
0000111100110111
(pad 16 (number->string (u16vector-ref (vector-ref (array-body B) 1) 0) 2)) =>
0000000100110111

The 9 low-order bits of board represent the entries of the array A, ignoring higher order bits, and you can see the bit order that is used to represent a u1-storage-class-body.

Procedure: specialized-array? object

Returns #t if object is a specialized-array, and #f otherwise. A specialized-array is an array.

Procedure: array-storage-class array

Procedure: array-indexer array

Procedure: array-body array

Procedure: array-safe? array

Assumes that array is a specialized array. array-storage-class returns the storage-class of array. array-safe? is true if and only if the arguments of (array-getter array) and (array-setter array) (including the value to be stored in the array) are checked for correctness.

(array-body array) is a linearly indexed, vector-like object (e.g., a vector, string, u8vector, etc.) indexed from 0.

(array-indexer array) is assumed to be a one-to-one, but not necessarily onto, affine mapping from (array-domain array) into the indexing domain of (array-body array).

Please see make-specialized-array for how (array-body array), etc., are used.

It is an error to call any of these procedures if array is not a specialized array.

Procedure: array-packed? array

Assumes that array is a specialized array, in which case it returns #t if the elements of array, taken in lexicographical order, are stored in (array-body array) with increasing and consecutive indices, and #f otherwise.

It is an error if array is not a specialized array.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-specialized-array-from-data '#(0 1 2 3)))
       (B (array-reverse A))
       (C (array-sample A '#(2))))
  (array-unveil A)
  (display (array-packed? A)) (newline)
  (array-unveil B)
  (display (array-packed? B)) (newline)  ;; adjacent boxes but decreasing index
  (array-unveil C)
  (display (array-packed? C)) (newline)) ;; non-adjacent boxes

displays:

 0 => 0
 1 => 1
 2 => 2
 3 => 3
#t
 0 => 3
 1 => 2
 2 => 1
 3 => 0
#f
 0 => 0
 1 => 2
#f

Procedure: specialized-array-share array new-domain new-domain->old-domain

Constructs a new specialized array that shares the body of the specialized array array. Returns an object that is behaviorally equivalent to a specialized array with the following fields:

domain:        new-domain
storage-class: (array-storage-class array)
body:          (array-body array)
indexer:       (lambda multi-index
                 (call-with-values
                     (lambda ()
                       (apply new-domain->old-domain
                              multi-index))
                   (array-indexer array)))

The resulting array inherits its safety and mutability from array.

Because new-domain->old-domain is assumed to be a one-to-one mapping, the volume of new-domain must be no greater than the number of elements of array.

Note: It is assumed that the affine structure of the composition of new-domain->old-domain and (array-indexer array) will be used to simplify:

  (lambda multi-index
    (call-with-values
        (lambda ()
          (apply new-domain->old-domain multi-index))
      (array-indexer array)))

It is an error if array is not a specialized array, or if new-domain is not an interval, or if new-domain->old-domain is not a one-to-one affine mapping from new-domain to (array-domain array).

Example: One can apply a "shearing" operation to an array as follows:

(define a
  (array-copy
   (make-array (make-interval '#(5 10))
               list)))
(define b
  (specialized-array-share
   a
   (make-interval '#(5 5))
   (lambda (i j)
     (values i (+ i j)))))
;; Print the "rows" of b
(array-for-each (lambda (row)
                  (pretty-print (array->list row)))
                (array-curry b 1))

;; which prints
;; ((0 0) (0 1) (0 2) (0 3) (0 4))
;; ((1 1) (1 2) (1 3) (1 4) (1 5))
;; ((2 2) (2 3) (2 4) (2 5) (2 6))
;; ((3 3) (3 4) (3 5) (3 6) (3 7))
;; ((4 4) (4 5) (4 6) (4 7) (4 8))

This "shearing" operation cannot be achieved by combining the procedures array-extract, array-translate, array-permute, array-translate, array-curry, array-reverse, and array-sample.

Procedure: array-copy array [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Procedure: array-copy! array [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that array is an array, storage-class is a storage class that can manipulate all the elements of array, and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

The specialized array returned by array-copy can be defined conceptually by:

(list->array (array-domain array)
             (array->list array)
             storage-class
             mutable?
             safe?)

If array is a specialized array, then if any of storage-class, mutable?, safe? are omitted, their values are assigned (array-storage-class array), (mutable-array? array), and (array-safe? array), respectively.

Otherwise, omitted arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(2 2)) list))
       (B (array-copy A)))
  (display (specialized-array? A)) (newline)
  (array-unveil A)
  (display (specialized-array? B)) (newline)
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

#f
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)
#t
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)

Procedure: array-curry array inner-dimension

Assumes that array is an array whose domain is an interval $[l_0,u_0)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$, and inner-dimension is an exact integer between $0$ and $d$ (inclusive). Then array-curry returns an immutable array with domain $[l_0,u_0)\times\cdots\times[l_{d-\text{inner-dimension}-1},u_{d-\text{inner-dimension}-1})$, each of whose entries is in itself an array with domain $[l_{d-\text{inner-dimension}},u_{d-\text{inner-dimension}})\times\cdots\times[l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$.

For example, if A and B are defined by

(define interval (make-interval '#(10 10 10 10)))
(define A (make-array interval list))
(define B (array-curry A 1))

(define A_ (array-getter A))
(define B_ (array-getter B))

so

(A_ i j k l) => (list i j k l)

then B is an immutable array with domain (make-interval '#(10 10 10)), each of whose elements is itself an (immutable) array and

(equal?
 (A_ i j k l)
 ((array-getter (B_ i j k)) l)) => #t

for all multi-indices i j k l in interval.

The subarrays are immutable, mutable, or specialized according to whether the array argument is immutable, mutable, or specialized.

More precisely, if

0 <= inner-dimension <= (interval-dimension (array-domain array))

then array-curry returns a result as follows.

If the input array is specialized, then array-curry returns

(call-with-values
    (lambda () (interval-projections (array-domain array)
                                     inner-dimension))
  (lambda (outer-interval inner-interval)
    (make-array
     outer-interval
     (lambda outer-multi-index
       (specialized-array-share
        array
        inner-interval
        (lambda inner-multi-index
          (apply values
                 (append outer-multi-index
                         inner-multi-index))))))))

Otherwise, if the input array is mutable, then array-curry returns

(call-with-values
    (lambda () (interval-projections (array-domain array)
                                     inner-dimension))
  (lambda (outer-interval inner-interval)
    (make-array
     outer-interval
     (lambda outer-multi-index
       (make-array
        inner-interval
        (lambda inner-multi-index
          (apply (array-getter array)
                 (append outer-multi-index
                         inner-multi-index)))
        (lambda (v . inner-multi-index)
          (apply (array-setter array)
                 v
                 (append outer-multi-index
                         inner-multi-index))))))))

Otherwise, array-curry returns

(call-with-values
    (lambda () (interval-projections (array-domain array)
                                     inner-dimension))
  (lambda (outer-interval inner-interval)
    (make-array
     outer-interval
     (lambda outer-multi-index
       (make-array
        inner-interval
        (lambda inner-multi-index
          (apply (array-getter array)
                 (append outer-multi-index
                         inner-multi-index))))))))

It is an error to call array-curry if its arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

If array is a specialized array, the subarrays of the result inherit their safety and mutability from array.

Note: Let's denote by B the result of (array-curry A k). While the result of calling (array-getter B) is an immutable, mutable, or specialized array according to whether A itself is immutable, mutable, or specialized, B is always an immutable array, where (array-getter B), which returns an array, is computed anew for each call. If (array-getter B) will be called multiple times with the same arguments, it may be useful to store these results in a specialized array for fast repeated access.

Please see the note in the discussion of array-tile.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(10 10)) list))
       (B (array-curry A 1)))
  (array-ref A 3 4)               ;; => (3 4)
  (array-ref (array-ref B 3) 4))  ;; => (3 4)

Example: NumPy has the operation numpy.squeeze, which can eliminate, or "squeeze" out, all axes of an array with length 1. It can be implemented using partition from SRFI 1 by

(define (array-squeeze a)
  (call-with-values
      (lambda ()
        (let ((interval (array-domain a)))
          (partition (lambda (k)
                       (eqv? (interval-width interval k) 1))
                     (iota (array-dimension a)))))
    (lambda (ones rest)
      (car (array->list
            (array-curry                           ;; this array has exactly one element
             (array-permute
              a (list->vector (append ones rest))) ;; put all length-one axes at beginning
             (length rest)))))))

(array->list* (array-squeeze (make-array (make-interval '#(1 2 1 2)) list)))
=>
(((0 0 0 0)
  (0 0 0 1))
 ((0 1 0 0)
  (0 1 0 1)))

(array->list*
 (array-squeeze
  (make-array (make-interval '#(1 2 3 4) '#(2 3 4 5))
              (lambda args (apply string-append (map number->string args))))))
=>
"1234"
(array-dimension
 (array-squeeze
  (make-array (make-interval '#(1 2 3 4) '#(2 3 4 5))
              (lambda args (apply string-append (map number->string args))))))
=>
0

(array->list*
 (array-squeeze
  (make-array (make-interval '#(1 2 3 4) '#(3 3 4 5))
              (lambda args (apply string-append (map number->string args))))))
=>
("1234" "2234")
(array-dimension
 (array-squeeze
  (make-array (make-interval '#(1 2 3 4) '#(3 3 4 5))
              (lambda args (apply string-append (map number->string args))))))
=>
1

Procedure: array-extract array interval

Returns a new array with the same getter (and setter, if appropriate) of the first argument, defined on the second argument.

Assumes that array is an array and interval is an interval that is a sub-interval of (array-domain array). If array is a specialized array, then returns

  (specialized-array-share array
                           interval
                           values)
  

Otherwise, if array is a mutable array, then array-extract returns

  (make-array interval
              (array-getter array)
              (array-setter array))

Finally, if array is an immutable array, then array-extract returns

  (make-array interval
              (array-getter array))

It is an error if the arguments of array-extract do not satisfy these conditions.

If array is a specialized array, the resulting array inherits its mutability and safety from array.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(3 3)) list))
       (B (array-extract A (make-interval '#(1 0) '#(3 2)))))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

A:
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 0 2 => (0 2)
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)
 1 2 => (1 2)
 2 0 => (2 0)
 2 1 => (2 1)
 2 2 => (2 2)
B:
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)
 2 0 => (2 0)
 2 1 => (2 1)

Procedure: array-tile array S

Decomposes the array array into subarrays, or tiles, specified by cuts perpendicular to the coordinate axes of array, which are specified by the elements second argument, S, and returns an array $T$ whose elements are those tiles.

If the $k$th axis of array has zero width, then the $k$th component of array must be a nonempty vector of exact zeros.

Otherwise, if the $k$th component of S is a positive exact integer $s$, then the cuts perpendicular to the $k$th coordinate axis are evenly spaced, beginning at the lower bound in the $k$th axis, $l_k$, cutting array into slices of uniform width, except possibly for the last slice. If the $k$ component of S is a vector $C$ of nonnegative exact integers that sum to (interval-width (array-domain array) k), then the cuts in the $k$th direction create slices with widths $C_0, C_1, \ldots$, beginning at the lower bound $l_k$. These subarrays completely "tile" array, in the sense that every entry in array is an entry of precisely one entry of the result $T$.

More formally, assume the domain of array is the interval $[l_0,u_0)\times\cdots\times [l_{d-1},u_{d-1})$; $T$ is an immutable array with all lower bounds zero. We specify the lower and upper bounds of the array comprising each element of $T$ that is extracted from array in the sense of array-extract, as follows.

If the $k$th component of S is an exact positive integer $s$, then the elements of $T$ with $k$th coordinates $j_k$ are subarrays of array with $k$th lower and upper bounds given by $l_k+j_k\times s$ and $\min(l_k+(j_k+1)s, u_k)$, respectively. (The "minimum" operator is necessary if $u_k-l_k$ is not divisible by $s$.)

If, on the other hand, the $k$ component of S is a vector of nonnegative exact integers $C$ whose components sum to $u_k-l_k$, then the elements of $T$ with $k$th coordinates $j_k$ are subarrays of array with $k$th lower and upper bounds given by $$ l_k+\sum_{i<j_k} C_i\quad\text{ and }\quad l_k+\sum_{i\leq j_k} C_i,\quad\text{respectively.} $$

It is an error if the arguments of array-tile do not satisfy these conditions.

If array is a specialized array, the subarrays of the result inherit safety and mutability from array.

Example:

(define T
  (list*->array
   2
   '(( 1  2  3  4  5  6)
     ( 7  8  9 10 11 12)
     (13 14 15 16 17 18)
     (19 20 21 22 23 24)
     (25 26 27 28 29 30)
     (31 32 33 34 35 36))))
(array->list*
 (array-map array->list*
            (array-tile T '#(#(3 1 2)
                             3))))
=>
((((1 2 3)                     ;; upper left corner
   (7 8 9)
   (13 14 15))
  ((4 5 6)                     ;; upper right corner
   (10 11 12)
   (16 17 18)))
 (((19 20 21))                 ;; left middle row
  ((22 23 24)))                ;; right middle row
 (((25 26 27)                  ;; lower left corner
   (31 32 33))
  ((28 29 30)                  ;; lower right corner
   (34 35 36))))

Note: The procedures array-tile and array-curry both decompose an array into subarrays, but in different ways. For example, if A is defined as (make-array (make-interval '#(10 10)) list), then (array-tile A '#(1 10)) returns an array with domain (make-interval '#(10 1)) for which the value at the multi-index (i 0) is an array with domain (make-interval (vector i 0) (vector (+ i 1) 10)) (i.e., a two-dimensional array whose elements are two-dimensional arrays), while (array-curry A 1) returns an array with domain (make-interval '#(10)), each element of which has domain (make-interval '#(10)) (i.e., a one-dimensional array whose elements are one-dimensional arrays).

Procedure: array-translate array translation

Assumes that array is an array, translation is a translation, and that the dimensions of the array and the translation are the same. The resulting array will have domain (interval-translate (array-domain array) translation).

If array is a specialized array, returns a new specialized array

(specialized-array-share
 array
 (interval-translate (array-domain array)
                     translation)
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply values
          (map -
               multi-index
               (vector->list translation)))))

that shares the body of array, as well as inheriting its safety and mutability.

If array is not a specialized array but is a mutable array, returns a new mutable array

(make-array
 (interval-translate (array-domain array)
                     translation)
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply (array-getter array)
          (map -
               multi-index
               (vector->list translation))))
 (lambda (val . multi-index)
   (apply (array-setter array)
          val
          (map -
               multi-index
               (vector->list translation)))))
 

that employs the same getter and setter as the original array argument.

If array is not a mutable array, returns a new array

(make-array
 (interval-translate (array-domain array)
                     translation)
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply (array-getter array)
          (map - multi-index (vector->list translation)))))

that employs the same getter as the original array.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(2 3)) list))
       (B (array-translate A '#(1 -3))))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (interval= (array-domain B) (make-interval '#(1 -3) '#(3 0))) ;; => #t
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

A:
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 0 2 => (0 2)
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)
 1 2 => (1 2)
B:
 1 -3 => (0 0)
 1 -2 => (0 1)
 1 -1 => (0 2)
 2 -3 => (1 0)
 2 -2 => (1 1)
 2 -1 => (1 2)

Procedure: array-permute array permutation

Assumes that array is an array and permutation is a permutation, and that the dimensions of the array and the permutation are the same. The resulting array will have domain (interval-permute (array-domain array) permutation).

We begin with an example. Assume that the domain of array is represented by the interval $[0,4)\times[0,8)\times[0,21)\times [0,16)$, as in the example for interval-permute, and the permutation is #(3 0 1 2). Then the domain of the new array is the interval $[0,16)\times [0,4)\times[0,8)\times[0,21)$.

So the multi-index argument of the getter of the result of array-permute must lie in the new domain of the array, the interval $[0,16)\times [0,4)\times[0,8)\times[0,21)$. So if we define old-getter as (array-getter array), the definition of the new array must be in fact

(make-array (interval-permute (array-domain array)
                              '#(3 0 1 2))
            (lambda (l i j k)
              (old-getter i j k l)))

So you see that if the first argument if the new getter is in $[0,16)$, then indeed the fourth argument of old-getter is also in $[0,16)$, as it should be. This is a subtlety that I don't see how to overcome. It is the listing of the arguments of the new getter, the lambda, that must be permuted.

Mathematically, we can define $\pi^{-1}$, the inverse of a permutation $\pi$, such that $\pi^{-1}$ composed with $\pi$ gives the identity permutation. Then the getter of the new array is, in pseudo-code, (lambda multi-index (apply old-getter ($\pi^{-1}$ multi-index))). We have assumed that $\pi^{-1}$ takes a list as an argument and returns a list as a result.

Employing this same pseudo-code, if array is a specialized array and we denote the permutation by $\pi$, then array-permute returns the new specialized array

(specialized-array-share array
                         (interval-permute (array-domain array) π)
                         (lambda multi-index
                           (apply values (π-1 multi-index))))

The resulting array shares the body of array, as well as its safety and mutability.

Again employing this same pseudo-code, if array is not a specialized array, but is a mutable array, then array-permute returns the new mutable array

(make-array (interval-permute (array-domain array) π)
            (lambda multi-index
              (apply (array-getter array)
                     (π-1 multi-index)))
            (lambda (val . multi-index)
              (apply (array-setter array)
                     val
                     (π-1 multi-index))))

which employs the setter and the getter of the argument to array-permute.

Finally, if array is not a mutable array, then array-permute returns

(make-array (interval-permute (array-domain array) π)
            (lambda multi-index
              (apply (array-getter array)
                     (π-1 multi-index))))

The only length-zero permutation is the empty permutation, specified by '#().

It is an error to call array-permute if its arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(1 3 2)) list))
       (B (array-permute A '#(2 1 0))))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (interval= (array-domain B) (make-interval '#(2 3 1))) ;; => #t
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

A:
 0 0 0 => (0 0 0)
 0 0 1 => (0 0 1)
 0 1 0 => (0 1 0)
 0 1 1 => (0 1 1)
 0 2 0 => (0 2 0)
 0 2 1 => (0 2 1)
B:
 0 0 0 => (0 0 0)
 0 1 0 => (0 1 0)
 0 2 0 => (0 2 0)
 1 0 0 => (0 0 1)
 1 1 0 => (0 1 1)
 1 2 0 => (0 2 1)

Procedure: array-reverse array #!optional flip?

We assume that array is an array and flip?, if given, is a vector of booleans whose length is the same as the dimension of array. If flip? is not given, it is set to a vector with length the same as the dimension of array, all of whose elements are #t.

array-reverse returns a new array that is specialized, mutable, or immutable according to whether array is specialized, mutable, or immutable, respectively. Informally, if (vector-ref flip? k) is true, then the ordering of multi-indices in the k'th coordinate direction is reversed, and is left undisturbed otherwise.

More formally, we introduce the procedure

(define flip-multi-index
  (let* ((domain (array-domain array))
         (lowers (interval-lower-bounds->list domain))
         (uppers (interval-upper-bounds->list domain)))
    (lambda (multi-index)
      (map (lambda (i_k flip?_k l_k u_k)
             (if flip?_k
                 (- (+ l_k u_k -1) i_k)
                 i_k))
           multi-index
           (vector->list flip?)
           lowers
           uppers))))

Then if array is specialized, array-reverse returns

(specialized-array-share
 array
 domain
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply values
          (flip-multi-index multi-index))))

and the result inherits the safety and mutability of array.

Otherwise, if array is mutable, then array-reverse returns

(make-array
 domain
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply (array-getter array)
          (flip-multi-index multi-index)))
   (lambda (v . multi-index)
     (apply (array-setter array)
            v
            (flip-multi-index multi-index)))))

Finally, if array is immutable, then array-reverse returns

(make-array
 domain
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply (array-getter array)
          (flip-multi-index multi-index))))) 

It is an error if array and flip? don't satisfy these requirements.

Example: The following example was motivated by a blog post by Joe Marshall.

(define (palindrome? s)
  (let* ((n
          (string-length s))
         (a
          ;; an array accessing the characters of s
          (make-array (make-interval (vector n))
                      (lambda (i)
                        (string-ref s i))))
         (ra
          ;; the characters accessed in reverse order
          (array-reverse a))
         (half-domain
          (make-interval (vector (quotient n 2)))))
    ;; If n is 0 or 1 the following extracted arrays
    ;; are empty.
    (array-every
     char=?
     ;; the first half of s
     (array-extract a half-domain)
     ;; the reversed second half of s
     (array-extract ra half-domain))))

(palindrome? "") => #t
(palindrome? "a") => #t
(palindrome? "aa") => #t
(palindrome? "ab") => #f
(palindrome? "aba") => #t
(palindrome? "abc") => #f
(palindrome? "abba") => #t
(palindrome? "abca") => #f
(palindrome? "abbc") => #f

Procedure: array-sample array scales

Assumes that array is an array all of whose lower bounds are zero, and scales is a vector of positive exact integers whose length is the same as the dimension of array.

Informally, if we construct a new matrix $S$ with the entries of scales on the main diagonal, then the $\vec i$th element of (array-sample array scales) is the $S\vec i$th element of array.

More formally, if array is specialized, then array-sample returns

(specialized-array-share
 array
 (interval-scale (array-domain array)
                 scales)
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply values
          (map * multi-index (vector->list scales)))))

with the result inheriting the safety and mutability of array.

Otherwise, if array is mutable, then array-sample returns

(make-array
 (interval-scale (array-domain array)
                 scales)
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply (array-getter array)
          (map * multi-index (vector->list scales))))
 (lambda (v . multi-index)
   (apply (array-setter array)
          v
          (map * multi-index (vector->list scales)))))

Finally, if array is immutable, then array-sample returns

(make-array
 (interval-scale (array-domain array)
                 scales)
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply (array-getter array)
          (map * multi-index (vector->list scales)))))

It is an error if array and scales don't satisfy these requirements.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(3 2)) list))
       (B (array-sample A '#(2 1))))
  (interval= (array-domain B) (make-interval '#(2 2)))  ;; => #t
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

A:
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)
 2 0 => (2 0)
 2 1 => (2 1)
B:
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 1 0 => (2 0)
 1 1 => (2 1)

Procedure: array-outer-product operator array1 array2

Implements the outer product of array1 and array2 with the operator operator, similar to the APL function with the same name.

Assumes that array1 and array2 are arrays and that operator is a procedure of two arguments. array-outer-product returns the immutable array

(make-array (interval-cartesian-product (array-domain array1)
                                        (array-domain array2))
            (lambda args
              (operator (apply (array-getter array1) (take args (array-dimension array1)))
                        (apply (array-getter array2) (drop args (array-dimension array1))))))

This operation can be considered a partial inverse to array-curry. It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions.

Note: You can see from the above definition that if C is (array-outer-product operator A B), then each call to (array-getter C) will call operator as well as (array-getter A) and (array-getter B). This means that if all elements of C are eventually accessed, then (array-getter A) will be called (array-volume B) times; similarly (array-getter B) will be called (array-volume A) times.

This implies that if (array-getter A) is expensive to compute (for example, if it's returning an array, as does array-curry) then the elements of A should be precomputed if necessary and stored in a specialized array, typically using array-copy, before that specialized array is passed as an argument to array-outer-product. In the examples below, the code for Gaussian elimination applies array-outer-product to shared specialized arrays, which are of course themselves specialized arrays; the code for array-inner-product applies array-outer-product to curried arrays, so we apply array-copy to the arguments before passage to array-outer-product.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(4)) (lambda (i) (* i 10))))
       (B (make-array (make-interval '#(3)) values))
       (C (array-outer-product + A B)))
  (interval= (array-domain C) (make-interval '#(4 3)))  ;; => #t
  (array-unveil C))

displays:

 0 0 => 0
 0 1 => 1
 0 2 => 2
 1 0 => 10
 1 1 => 11
 1 2 => 12
 2 0 => 20
 2 1 => 21
 2 2 => 22
 3 0 => 30
 3 1 => 31
 3 2 => 32

Procedure: array-inner-product A f g B

Assumes that f and g are procedures of two arguments and A and B are arrays of dimension at least one, with the upper and lower bounds of the last axis of A the same as those of the first axis of B. Computes the equivalent of

(define (array-inner-product A f g B)
  (array-outer-product
   (lambda (a b)
     (array-reduce f (array-map g a b)))
   (array-copy (array-curry A 1))
   (array-copy (array-curry (array-permute B (index-rotate (array-dimension B) 1)))))

We precompute and store the curried arrays using array-copy for efficiency reasons, as described in array-outer-product.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these constraints.

See the extended examples below that use array-inner-product.

Procedure: array-map f array . arrays

Assumes that array, (car arrays), ... are arrays with the same domain and f is a procedure. Then array-map returns a new immutable array with the same domain and getter

(lambda multi-index
  (apply f
         (map (lambda (g)
                (apply g multi-index))
              (map array-getter
                   (cons array arrays)))))

It is assumed that f is appropriately defined to be evaluated in this context.

It is expected that array-map and array-for-each will specialize the construction of

(lambda multi-index
  (apply f
         (map (lambda (g)
                (apply g multi-index))
              (map array-getter
                   (cons array
                         arrays)))))

It is an error to call array-map if its arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Note: The ease of constructing temporary arrays without allocating storage makes it trivial to imitate, e.g., Javascript's map with index. For example, we can add the index to each element of an array a by

(array-map +
           a
           (make-array (array-domain a)
                       (lambda (i) i)))

or even

(make-array (array-domain a)
            (let ((a_ (array-getter a)))
              (lambda (i)
                (+ (a_ i) i))))

Example:

(let* ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(1 1) '#(5 5)) list))
       (B (array-map (lambda (arg) (apply * arg)) A)))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

A:
 1 1 => (1 1)
 1 2 => (1 2)
 1 3 => (1 3)
 1 4 => (1 4)
 2 1 => (2 1)
 2 2 => (2 2)
 2 3 => (2 3)
 2 4 => (2 4)
 3 1 => (3 1)
 3 2 => (3 2)
 3 3 => (3 3)
 3 4 => (3 4)
 4 1 => (4 1)
 4 2 => (4 2)
 4 3 => (4 3)
 4 4 => (4 4)
B:
 1 1 => 1
 1 2 => 2
 1 3 => 3
 1 4 => 4
 2 1 => 2
 2 2 => 4
 2 3 => 6
 2 4 => 8
 3 1 => 3
 3 2 => 6
 3 3 => 9
 3 4 => 12
 4 1 => 4
 4 2 => 8
 4 3 => 12
 4 4 => 16

Procedure: array-for-each f array . arrays

Assumes that array, (car arrays), ... are arrays with the same domain and f is a procedure. Then array-for-each calls

(interval-for-each
 (lambda multi-index
   (apply f
          (map (lambda (g)
                 (apply g multi-index))
               (map array-getter
                    (cons array
                          arrays)))))
 (array-domain array))

In particular, array-for-each always walks the indices of the arrays in lexicographical order.

It is expected that array-map and array-for-each will specialize the construction of

(lambda multi-index
  (apply f
         (map (lambda (g)
                (apply g multi-index))
              (map array-getter
                   (cons array
                         arrays)))))

It is an error to call array-for-each if its arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(3 3)) list)))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (newline)
  (array-for-each (lambda (entry)
                    (pretty-print (apply + entry)))
                  A))

displays:

A:
 0 0 => (0 0)
 0 1 => (0 1)
 0 2 => (0 2)
 1 0 => (1 0)
 1 1 => (1 1)
 1 2 => (1 2)
 2 0 => (2 0)
 2 1 => (2 1)
 2 2 => (2 2)

0
1
2
1
2
3
2
3
4

Procedure: array-foldl operator identity array . arrays

This procedure is analogous to the left fold of Ocaml or Haskell, which can be defined on lists in Scheme as:

(define (foldl operator identity  . lsts)
  (if (null? (car lsts))
      id
      (apply foldl operator (apply operator identity (map car lsts)) (map cdr lsts))))

Then conceptually (array-foldl operator identity array . arrays) returns

(apply foldl operator identity (array->list (apply array-map list array arrays)))

It is an error if (cons array arrays) is not a list of arrays with the same domains, or if operator is not a procedure.

Note: One can fold over empty arrays, which returns identity, but it is an error to call array-reduce on an empty array, because array-reduce must evaluate at least one element of the argument array.

Example: One can define an APL-style array-depth by:

(define (array-depth a)
  (if (array? a)
      (+ 1 (array-foldl max 0 (array-map array-depth a)))
      0))

Here non-arrays have depth 0, and each level of array "nesting" increases the depth by 1.

Example: One can define (array-foldl-on op id array dims), which does not fold over the entire array, but computes:

(define (array-foldl-on op id array dims)
  (array-map (lambda (a)
               (array-foldl op id a))
             (array-curry a dims)))

which folds over only the dims rightmost dimensions and returns an array of results. (Note that this works even if dims is (array-dimension array), in which case the result is a zero-dimensional array containing the left fold of the entire array.)

Procedure: array-foldr operator identity array . arrays

This procedure is analogous to the right fold of Ocaml or Haskell, which can be defined on lists in Scheme as:

(define (foldr operator identity . lsts)
  (if (null? (car lsts))
      id
      (apply fold operator (apply operator (append (map car lsts) (list identity))) (map cdr lsts))))

Then conceptually (array-foldr operator identity array . arrays) returns

(apply foldr operator identity (array->list (apply array-map list array arrays)))

It is an error if (cons array arrays) is not a list of arrays with the same domain, or if operator is not a procedure.

Example: If op is associative with two-sided identity id, then array-foldl and array-foldr return the same results, but see:

(define a (make-array (make-interval '#(10)) (lambda (i) i)))
(array-foldl cons '() a)
=> ((((((((((() . 0) . 1) . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) . 9)
(array-foldr cons '() a)
=> (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)
(array-foldl - 0 a)
=> -45
(array-foldr - 0 a)
=> -5

Procedure: array-reduce operator array

Assumes that array is a nonempty array and operator is a procedure of two arguments that is associative, i.e., (operator (operator x y) z) is the same as (operator x (operator y z)).

Then (array-reduce operator array) can be defined as

(define array-reduce
  (let ((reduce-base (list 1))) ;; any unique object
    (lambda (sum array)
      (array-foldl (lambda (id entry)
                     (if (eq? id reduce-base)
                         entry
                         (sum id entry)))
                   reduce-base
                   array))))

The implementation is allowed to use the associativity of operator to reorder the computations in array-reduce. It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these conditions.

Example: We consider the finite sum: $$ S_m=\sum_{k=1}^m \frac 1{k^2}. $$ One can show that $$ \frac 1 {m+1}<\frac{\pi^2}6-S_m<\frac 1m. $$ We attempt to compute this in floating-point arithmetic in two ways. In the first, we apply array-reduce to an array containing the terms of the series, basically a serial computation. In the second, we divide the series into blocks of no more than 1,000 consecutive terms, apply array-reduce to get a new sequence of terms, and repeat the process. The second way is approximately what might happen with GPU computing.

We find with $m=1{,}000{,}000{,}000$:

(define A (make-array (make-interval '#(1) '#(1000000001))
                      (lambda (k)
                        (fl/ (flsquare (inexact k))))))
(define (block-sum A)
  (let ((N (interval-volume (array-domain A))))
    (cond ((<= N 1000)
           (array-reduce fl+ A))
          ((<= N (square 1000))
           (block-sum (array-map block-sum
                                 (array-tile A (vector (integer-sqrt N))))))
          (else
           (block-sum (array-map block-sum
                                 (array-tile A (vector (quotient N 1000)))))))))
(array-reduce fl+ A) => 1.644934057834575
(block-sum A)        => 1.6449340658482325

Since $\pi^2/6\approx{}$1.6449340668482264, we see using the first method that the difference $\pi^2/6-{}$1.644934057834575${}\approx{}$9.013651380840315e-9 and with the second we have $\pi^2/6-{}$1.6449340658482325${}\approx{}$9.99993865491433e-10. The true difference should be between $\frac 1{1{,}000{,}000{,}001}\approx{}$9.99999999e-10 and $\frac 1{1{,}000{,}000{,}000}={}$1e-9. The difference for the first method is about 10 times too big, and, in fact, will not change further because any further terms, when added to the partial sum, are too small to increase the sum after rounding-to-nearest in double-precision IEEE-754 floating-point arithmetic.

Procedure: array-any predicate array . arrays

Assumes that (cons array arrays) is a list of arrays, all with the same domain, which we'll call interval. Also assumes that predicate is a procedure that takes as many arguments as there are arrays and returns a single value.

array-any first computes (apply predicate (map (lambda (g_) (apply g_ multi-index)) (map array-getter (cons array arrays)))) to the first element of interval in lexicographical order.

If the result of predicate is not #f, then that result is returned by array-any. If the result of predicate is #f, then array-any continues with the second element of interval, etc., returning the first nonfalse value of predicate.

If predicate always returns #f, then array-any returns #f.

If it happens that predicate is applied to (map (lambda (g_) (apply g_ multi-index)) (map array-getter (cons array arrays))) with multi-index the last element of interval, then this last call to predicate is in tail position.

The procedures (array-getter array), etc., are applied only to those values of interval necessary to determine the result of array-any.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions.

Example:

(let ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(240) '#(250)) values))
      (B (make-array (make-interval '#(250) '#(300)) values)))

  (define (square? n)
    (and (exact? (sqrt n)) n))   ;; return the value

  (array-any square? A)    ;; => #f
  (array-any square? B))   ;; => 256, the first nonfalse value

Procedure: array-every predicate array . arrays

Assumes that(cons array arrays) is a list arrays, all with the same domain, which we'll call interval. Also assumes that predicate is a procedure that takes as many arguments as there are arrays and returns a single value.

array-every first computes (apply predicate (map (lambda (g_) (apply g_ multi-index)) (map array-getter (cons array arrays)))) to the first element of interval in lexicographical order.

If the result of predicate is #f, then that result is returned by array-every. If the result of predicate is nonfalse, then array-every continues with the second element of interval, etc., returning the first value of predicate that is #f.

If predicate always returns a nonfalse value, then the last nonfalse value returned by predicate is also returned by array-every.

If it happens that predicate is applied to (map (lambda (g_) (apply g_ multi-index)) (map array-getter (cons array arrays))) with multi-index the last element of interval, then this last call to predicate is in tail position.

The procedures (array-getter array), etc., are applied only to those values of interval necessary to determine the result of array-every.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions.

For an example, see the palindrome example above.

Procedure: array->list array

Stores the elements of array into a newly allocated list in lexicographical order. It is an error if array is not an array.

It is guaranteed that (array-getter array) is called precisely once for each multi-index in (array-domain array) in lexicographical order.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-specialized-array-from-data '#(2 4 6 8)))
       (B (array-reverse A)))
  (pretty-print (array->list A))
  (pretty-print (array->list B)))

displays:

(2 4 6 8)
(8 6 4 2)

Procedure: list->array interval list [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that list is a list, interval is an interval with volume the same as the length of list, storage-class is a storage class that can manipulate all the elements of list, and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

Returns a specialized array with domain interval whose elements are the elements of the list list stored in lexicographical order. The result is mutable or safe depending on the values of mutable? and safe?.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions, or if any element of list cannot be stored in the body of storage-class, and this last error shall be detected and raised.

Example:

(let* ((l (iota 12))
       (A (list->array (make-interval '#(2 2 3)) l))
       (B (list->array (make-interval '#(12)) l)))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays

A:
 0 0 0 => 0
 0 0 1 => 1
 0 0 2 => 2
 0 1 0 => 3
 0 1 1 => 4
 0 1 2 => 5
 1 0 0 => 6
 1 0 1 => 7
 1 0 2 => 8
 1 1 0 => 9
 1 1 1 => 10
 1 1 2 => 11
B:
 0 => 0
 1 => 1
 2 => 2
 3 => 3
 4 => 4
 5 => 5
 6 => 6
 7 => 7
 8 => 8
 9 => 9
 10 => 10
 11 => 11

Procedure: list*->array d nested-list [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that d is a nonnegative exact integer and, if given, storage-class is a storage class and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

This routine builds a specialized array of dimension d, storage class storage-class, mutability mutable?, and safety safe? from nested-list. It is assumed that following predicate does not return #f when passed nested-list and d as arguments:

(define (check-nested-list dimension nested-data)
    (or (eqv? dimension 0)  ;; anything goes in dimension 0
        (and (list? nested-data)
             (let ((len (length nested-data)))
               (cond ((eqv? len 0)
                      '())
                     ((eqv? dimension 1)
                      (list len))
                     (else
                      (let* ((sublists
                              (map (lambda (l)
                                     (check-nested-list (fx- dimension 1) l))
                                   nested-data))
                             (first
                              (car sublists)))
                        (and first
                             (every (lambda (l)
                                      (equal? first l))
                                    (cdr sublists))
                             (cons len first)))))))))

In this case, list*->array returns an array with domain (make-interval (list->vector (check-nested-list d nested-list))). If we denote the getter of the result by A_, then

(A_ i_0 ... i_d-2 i_d-1)
=> (list-ref (list-ref (... (list-ref nested-list i_0) ...) i_d-2) i_d-1)

and we assume that this value can be manipulated by storage-class.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

Empty and zero-dimensional lists are treated differently; see the discussion for array->list*. For example

(list*->array 0 '()) => An array for which ((array-getter (list*->array 0 '()))) => '()
(list*->array 1 '()) => An empty array with domain (make-interval '#(0))
(list*->array 2 '()) => An empty array with domain (make-interval '#(0 0))
(list*->array 2 '(() ())) => An empty array with domain (make-interval '#(2 0))

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions.

Example:

(let ((A (list*->array 3 '(((1 2 3)
                            (4 5 6))
                           ((7 8 9)
                            (10 11 12))))))
  (array-unveil A))

displays:

 0 0 0 => 1
 0 0 1 => 2
 0 0 2 => 3
 0 1 0 => 4
 0 1 1 => 5
 0 1 2 => 6
 1 0 0 => 7
 1 0 1 => 8
 1 0 2 => 9
 1 1 0 => 10
 1 1 1 => 11
 1 1 2 => 12

Procedure: array->list* array

Assumes that array is an array, and returns a newly allocated nested list nested-list. If array is nonempty and has positive dimension and we denote the getter of array by array_, then nested-list and array_ satisfy

(array_ i_0 ... i_d-2 i_d-1)
=> (list-ref (list-ref (... (list-ref nested-list i_0) ...) i_d-2) i_d-1)

Each element of array is accessed once.

If array is zero dimensional, then array->list* returns ((array-getter array)). If the argument is an empty array, then the nested lists of the result match the first nonzero dimensions (if any). For example:

(array->list* (make-array (make-interval '#()) (lambda () 2))) => 2 ;; no list
(array->list* (make-array (make-interval '#(0)) error)) => '()
(array->list* (make-array (make-interval '#(0 0)) error)) => '()
(array->list* (make-array (make-interval '#(2 0)) error)) => '(() ())
(array->list* (make-array (make-interval '#(0 2)) error)) => '()

It is an error if array is not an array.

Example:

(let ((B (array->list* (make-array (make-interval '#(6 6)) (lambda (i j) (/ (+ 1 i j)))))))
  (pretty-print B))

displays:

((1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6)
 (1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7)
 (1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8)
 (1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9)
 (1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10)
 (1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11))

Procedure: array->vector array

Stores the elements of array into a newly allocated vector in lexicographical order. It is an error if array is not an array.

It is guaranteed that (array-getter array) is called precisely once for each multi-index in (array-domain array) in lexicographical order.

Example:

(let* ((A (make-specialized-array-from-data '#(2 4 6 8)))
       (B (array-reverse A)))
  (pretty-print (array->vector A))
  (pretty-print (array->vector B)))

displays:

#(2 4 6 8)
#(8 6 4 2)

Procedure: vector->array interval vector [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that vector is a vector, interval is an interval with volume the same as the length of v, storage-class is a storage class that can manipulate all the elements of vector, and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

Returns a specialized array with domain interval whose elements are the elements of the vector vector stored in lexicographical order. The result is mutable or safe depending on the values of mutable? and safe?.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions, or if any element of vector cannot be stored in the body of storage-class, and this last error shall be detected and raised.

Example:

(let* ((v (list->vector (iota 12)))
       (A (vector->array (make-interval '#(2 2 3)) v))
       (B (vector->array (make-interval '#(12)) v)))
  (display "A:\n")
  (array-unveil A)
  (display "B:\n")
  (array-unveil B))

displays:

A:
 0 0 0 => 0
 0 0 1 => 1
 0 0 2 => 2
 0 1 0 => 3
 0 1 1 => 4
 0 1 2 => 5
 1 0 0 => 6
 1 0 1 => 7
 1 0 2 => 8
 1 1 0 => 9
 1 1 1 => 10
 1 1 2 => 11
B:
 0 => 0
 1 => 1
 2 => 2
 3 => 3
 4 => 4
 5 => 5
 6 => 6
 7 => 7
 8 => 8
 9 => 9
 10 => 10
 11 => 11

Procedure: vector*->array d nested-vector [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that d is a nonnegative exact integer and, if given, storage-class is a storage class and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

This routine builds a specialized array of dimension d, storage class storage-class, mutability mutable?, and safety safe? from nested-vector. It is assumed that following predicate does not return #f when passed nested-vector and d as arguments:

(define (check-nested-vector dimension nested-data)
  (or (eqv? dimension 0)  ;; anything goes in dimension 0
      (and (vector? nested-data)
           (let ((len (vector-length nested-data)))
             (cond ((eqv? len 0)
                    '())
                   ((eqv? dimension 1)
                    (list len))
                   (else
                    (let* ((sublists
                            (vector-map (lambda (l)
                                          (check-nested-vector (fx- dimension 1) l))
                                        nested-data))
                           (first
                            (vector-ref sublists 0)))
                      (and first
                           (vector-every (lambda (l)
                                           (equal? first l))
                                         sublists)
                           (cons len first)))))))))

In this case, vector*->array returns an array with domain (make-interval (list->vector (check-nested-vector d nested-vector))). If we denote the getter of the result by A_, then

(A_ i_0 ... i_d-2 i_d-1)
=> (vector-ref (vector-ref (... (vector-ref nested-vector i_0) ...) i_d-2) i_d-1)

and we assume that this value can be manipulated by storage-class.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

If the resulting array would be empty or have dimension zero, see the examples for list*->array.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions.

Example:

(let ((A (vector*->array 3 '#(#(#(1 2 3)
                                #(4 5 6))
                              #(#(7 8 9)
                                #(10 11 12))))))
  (array-unveil A))

displays:

 0 0 0 => 1
 0 0 1 => 2
 0 0 2 => 3
 0 1 0 => 4
 0 1 1 => 5
 0 1 2 => 6
 1 0 0 => 7
 1 0 1 => 8
 1 0 2 => 9
 1 1 0 => 10
 1 1 1 => 11
 1 1 2 => 12

Procedure: array->vector* array

Assumes that array is an array, and returns a newly allocated nested vector nested-vector. If we denote the getter of array by array_, then nested-vector and array_ satisfy

(array_ i_0 ... i_d-2 i_d-1)
=> (vector-ref (vector-ref (... (vector-ref nested-vector i_0) ...) i_d-2) i_d-1)

If array is empty or zero dimensional, then see the examples for array->list*.:

Each element of array is accessed once.

It is an error if array is not an array.

Example:

(let ((B (array->vector* (make-array (make-interval '#(6 6)) (lambda (i j) (/ (+ 1 i j)))))))
  (pretty-print B))

displays:

#(#(1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6)
  #(1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7)
  #(1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8)
  #(1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9)
  #(1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10)
  #(1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11))

Procedure: array-assign! destination source

Assumes that destination is a mutable array and source is an array with the same domain, and that the elements of source can be stored into destination.

Evaluates (array-getter source) on the multi-indices in (array-domain source) in lexicographical order, and assigns each value to the multi-index in destination in the same lexicographical order.

It is an error if the arguments don't satisfy these assumptions.

If assigning any element of destination affects the value of any element of source, then the result is undefined.

Example:

(let* ((A (array-copy
           (make-array (make-interval '#(5 5))
                       (lambda (i j) (* i j)))
           generic-storage-class
           #t))    ;; ensure A is mutable
       (D_B (make-interval '#(2 2) '#(5 5)))
       (B (make-array D_B (lambda (i j) 100))))
  (display "A before assignment:\n")
  (pretty-print (array->list* A))
  (array-assign! (array-extract A D_B)
                 B)
  (display "A after assignment:\n")
  (pretty-print (array->list* A)))

displays:

A before assignment:
((0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 1 2 3 4)
 (0 2 4 6 8)
 (0 3 6 9 12)
 (0 4 8 12 16))
A after assignment:
((0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 1 2 3 4)
 (0 2 100 100 100)
 (0 3 100 100 100)
 (0 4 100 100 100))

Procedure: array-stack k arrays [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Procedure: array-stack! k arrays [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that arrays is a nonnull list of arrays with identical domains, k is an exact integer between 0 (inclusive) and the dimension of the array domains (inclusive), and, if given, storage-class is a storage class, mutable? is a boolean, and safe? is a boolean.

Returns a specialized array equivalent to

(array-copy
 (make-array
  (let ((lowers (interval-lower-bounds->list (array-domain (car arraya))))
        (uppers (interval-upper-bounds->list (array-domain (car arrays))))
        (N (length arrays)))
    (make-interval (list->vector (append (take lowers k) (cons 0 (drop lowers k))))
                   (list->vector (append (take uppers k) (cons N (drop uppers k))))))
  (let ((getters (map array-getter arrays)))
    (lambda indices
      (let ((i (list-ref indices k)))
        (apply (list-ref getters i)
               (append (take indices k)
                       (drop indices (+ k 1)))))))))

In other words we "stack" the argument arrays along a new k'th axis, the lower bound of which is set to 0.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

Each element of any of the arrays is accessed once.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these constraints.

Example: Let's say we have a spreadsheet A and we want to make a new spreadsheet B with the same rows but with the data from only columns 1, 2, 5, and 8. Using the routine array-display we define below, code to do this can look like:

(let* ((A
        (make-array
         (make-interval '#(4 10))
         list))
       (column_
        (array-getter                  ;; the getter of ...
         (array-curry                  ;; a 1-D array of the columns of A
          (array-permute A '#(1 0))
          1)))
       (B
        (array-stack                  ;; stack into a new 2-D array ...
         1                            ;; along axis 1 (i.e., columns) ...
         (map column_ '(1 2 5 8)))))  ;; the columns of A you want
  (array-display B))

;;; Displays

(0 1)   (0 2)   (0 5)   (0 8)
(1 1)   (1 2)   (1 5)   (1 8)
(2 1)   (2 2)   (2 5)   (2 8)
(3 1)   (3 2)   (3 5)   (3 8)

In fact, because A is a generalized array, the only elements of A that are generated are the ones that are assigned as elements of B. The result could also be computed in one line:

(array-stack 1 (map (array-getter (array-curry (array-permute A '#(1 0)) 1)) '(1 2 5 8)))

Procedure: array-decurry A [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Procedure: array-decurry! A [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that A is a nonempty array of arrays; the elements of A are assumed to all have the same (possibly empty) domain. Also assumes that, if given, storage-class is a storage class and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

array-decurry evaluates each array element of A once, and evaluates each element of A's array elements once. array-decurry returns a specialized array containing the elements of A's array elements; ignoring optional arguments, the result is equivalent to:

(let* ((A
        (array-copy A))      ;; evaluate all elements of A once
       (A_dim
        (array-dimension A))
       (A_
        (array-getter A))
       (A_D
        (array-domain A))
       (element-domain
        (array-domain (apply A_ (interval-lower-bounds->list A_D))))
       (result-domain
        (interval-cartesian-product A_D element-domain))
       (result
        (make-specialized-array result-domain))
       (curried-result
        (array-curry result (interval-dimension element-domain))))
  (array-for-each array-assign! curried-result A)
  result-array)

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

It is an error if any of these assumptions are not met, or if the given storage class cannot manipulate the elements of A's array elements.

Example:

(let* ((A (list*->array 1 '(1 2 3)))
       (B (list*->array 1 '(4 5 6)))
       (C (list*->array 1 '(7 8 9)))
       (D (list*->array 1 '(10 11 12)))
       (E (list*->array 1 (list A B C D)))
       (F (array-decurry E)))
  (array-every array? E)              ;; => #t
  (array-every
   (lambda (a)
     (interval=
      (array-domain a)
      (make-interval '#(3))))         ;; => #t
   E)
  (interval= (array-domain F)
             (make-interval '#(4 3))) ;; => #t
  (array-unveil F))

displays:

 0 0 => 1
 0 1 => 2
 0 2 => 3
 1 0 => 4
 1 1 => 5
 1 2 => 6
 2 0 => 7
 2 1 => 8
 2 2 => 9
 3 0 => 10
 3 1 => 11
 3 2 => 12

Procedure: array-append k arrays [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Procedure: array-append! k arrays [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Assumes that arrays is a nonnull list of arrays with domains that differ at most in the k'th axis, k is an exact integer between 0 (inclusive) and the dimension of the array domains (exclusive), and, if given, storage-class is a storage class, mutable? is a boolean, and safe? is a boolean.

This routine appends, or concatenates, the argument arrays along the k'th axis, with the lower bound of this axis set to 0.

Returns a specialized array equivalent to the result of

(define (array-append k arrays)
  (let*-values (((axis-subdividers kth-size)
                 ;; compute lower and upper bounds of where along the
                 ;; k'th axis we'll copy each array argument, plus
                 ;; the total size of the kth axis of the result array
                 (let loop ((result '(0))
                            (arrays arrays))
                   (if (null? arrays)
                       (values (reverse result) (car result))
                       (let ((interval (array-domain (car arrays))))
                         (loop (cons (+ (car result)
                                        (- (interval-upper-bound interval k)
                                           (interval-lower-bound interval k)))
                                     result)
                               (cdr arrays))))))
                ((lowers)
                 ;; the domains of the arrays differ only in the kth axis
                 (interval-lower-bounds->vector (array-domain array)))
                ((uppers)
                 (interval-upper-bounds->vector (array-domain array)))
                ((result)
                 ;; the result array
                 (make-specialized-array
                  (let ()
                    (vector-set! lowers k 0)
                    (vector-set! uppers k kth-size)
                    (make-interval lowers uppers))))
                ((translation)
                 ;; a vector we'll use to align each argument
                 ;; array into the proper subarray of the result
                 (make-vector (array-dimension array) 0)))
    (let loop ((arrays arrays)
               (subdividers axis-subdividers))
      (if (null? arrays)
          ;; we've assigned every array to the appropriate subarray of result
          result
          (let ((array (car arrays)))
            ;; the lower and upper bounds in the kth axis of the result where we copy the
            ;; next array
            (vector-set! lowers k (car subdividers))
            (vector-set! uppers k (cadr subdividers))
            ;; the translation that aligns the next array with the subarray of the result
            (vector-set! translation k (- (car subdividers)
                                          (interval-lower-bound (array-domain array) k)))
            (array-assign!
             (array-extract result (make-interval lowers uppers))
             (array-translate array translation))
            (loop (cdr arrays)
                  (cdr subdividers)))))))

Each element of any of the arrays is accessed once.

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these constraints.

Example: Given a two-dimensional array $a$ interpreted as a spreadsheet, with the rows and columns indexed starting at 0, one might want to make a new array with row $k$ moved to be the top row. Then one could do:

(let* ((a (make-array (make-interval '#(4 6)) list))
       (k 2)
       (m (interval-upper-bound (array-domain a) 0))
       (n (interval-upper-bound (array-domain a) 1)))
  (pretty-print
   (array->list* a))
  (newline)
  (pretty-print
   (array->list*
    (array-append
     0
     (list (array-extract a (make-interval (vector k 0) (vector (+ k 1) n)))
           (array-extract a (make-interval (vector k n)))
           (array-extract a (make-interval (vector (+ k 1) 0) (vector m n))))))))

This prints:

(((0 0) (0 1) (0 2) (0 3) (0 4) (0 5))
 ((1 0) (1 1) (1 2) (1 3) (1 4) (1 5))
 ((2 0) (2 1) (2 2) (2 3) (2 4) (2 5))
 ((3 0) (3 1) (3 2) (3 3) (3 4) (3 5)))

(((2 0) (2 1) (2 2) (2 3) (2 4) (2 5))
 ((0 0) (0 1) (0 2) (0 3) (0 4) (0 5))
 ((1 0) (1 1) (1 2) (1 3) (1 4) (1 5))
 ((3 0) (3 1) (3 2) (3 3) (3 4) (3 5)))

Because this SRFI supports empty arrays, the same code works when $k=0$ (when the second extracted array is empty) or $k=m-1$ (when the third extracted array is empty).

Procedure: array-block A [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

Procedure: array-block! A [ storage-class [ mutable? [ safe? ] ] ]

This procedure is an inverse to array-tile. It assumes that A is a nonempty array of arrays, all of which have the same dimension as A itself. It also assumes that, if given, storage-class is a storage class and mutable? and safe? are booleans.

While ignoring the lower and upper bounds of the element arrays, it assumes that those element arrays have widths (as defined by interval-widths) that allow them to be packed together in the configuration given by their indices in A. We can always do this when (array-dimension A) is 1. Otherwise, assuming that the lower bounds of A are zero, we require:

(every
 (lambda (k)                                        ;; for each coordinate direction
   (let ((slices                                    ;; the "slices"
                                                    ;; perpendicular to that direction
          (array-curry (array-permute A (index-first (array-dimension A) k))
                       (- (array-dimension A) 1))))
     (array-every
      (lambda (slice)                               ;; for every slice perpendicular
                                                    ;; to direction k
        (let ((slice-kth-width                      ;; the kth interval width of the
                                                    ;; "corner" element
               (interval-width
                (array-domain
                 (apply (array-getter slice)
                        (make-list (- (array-dimension A) 1) 0)))
                k)))
          (array-every
           (lambda (a)                              ;; all arrays within that slice
             (= (interval-width (array-domain a) k) ;; have the same width in the kth
                                                    ;; direction
                slice-kth-width))
           slice)))
      slices)))
 (iota (array-dimension A)))

This procedure then returns a specialized array with lower bounds all zero and with the specified storage class, mutability, and safety, whose elements are taken from the array elements of A itself. In principle, one could compute the result by appending all the array elements of A successively along each coordinate axis of A, in any order of the axes. Each element of A is accessed once, and each element of A's array elements is accessed once.

Each element of A is itself an array; one can copy the contents of each array element of A to the result array with the following algorithm:

(let* ((A_dim
        (array-dimension A))
       (ks
        (list->vector (iota A_dim)))
       (corner-multi-index
        (make-list (fx- A_dim 1) 0))
       (slice-offsets       ;; the indices in each direction where the "cuts" are
        (vector-map
         (lambda (k)        ;; the direction
           (let* ((pencil   ;; a pencil in that direction
                   (apply (array-getter (array-curry (array-permute A (index-last A_dim k)) 1))
                          corner-multi-index))
                  (pencil_
                   (array-getter pencil))
                  (pencil-size
                   (interval-width (array-domain pencil) 0))
                  (result   ;; include sum of all kth interval-widths in pencil
                   (make-vector (fx+ pencil-size 1) 0)))
             (do ((i 0 (fx+ i 1)))
                 ((fx= i pencil-size) result)
               (vector-set! result
                            (fx+ i 1)
                            (fx+ (vector-ref result i)
                                 (interval-width (array-domain (pencil_ i)) k))))))
         ks))
       (result
        (make-specialized-array
         (make-interval
          (vector-map (lambda (v)
                        (vector-ref v (fx- (vector-length v) 1)))
                      slice-offsets))
         storage-class
         (storage-class-default storage-class)
         safe?)))
  ;; We copy the elements from each input array block to the corresponding block
  ;; in the result array.
  (interval-for-each
   (lambda multi-index
     (let* ((vector-multi-index
             (list->vector multi-index))
            (corner     ;; where the subarray will sit in the result array
             (vector-map (lambda (i k)
                           (vector-ref (vector-ref slice-offsets k) i))
                         vector-multi-index
                         ks))
            (subarray
             (apply A_ multi-index))
            (translated-subarray  ;; translate the subarray to corner
             (array-translate
              subarray
              (vector-map -
                          corner
                          (interval-lower-bounds (array-domain subarray))))))
       (array-assign! (array-extract result (array-domain translated-subarray))
                      translated-subarray)))
   (array-domain A))
  (if (not mutable?)
      (array-freeze! result)
      result))

Any missing optional arguments are assigned the values generic-storage-class, (specialized-array-default-mutable?), and (specialized-array-default-safe?), respectively.

It is an error if the arguments do not satisfy these assumptions, or if all elements of the result cannot by manipulated by the given storage class.

Examples:

(array->vector*
 (array-block (list*->array
               2
               (list (list (list*->array 2 '((0 1)
                                             (2 3)))
                           (list*->array 2 '((4)
                                             (5)))
                           (list*->array 2 '((6 7 8)
                                             (9 10 11))))
                     (list (list*->array 2 '((12 13)))
                           (list*->array 2 '((14)))
                           (list*->array 2 '((15 16 17))))))))
=>
#(#(0 1 4 6 7 8)
  #(2 3 5 9 10 11)
  #(12 13 14 15 16 17))

(array-block (list*->array
              2
              (list (list (list*->array 2 '((0 1)
                                            (2 3)))
                          (list*->array 2 '((4)
                                            (5)))
                          (list*->array 2 '((6 7)            ;; these should each have ...
                                            (9 10))))        ;; three elements ...
                    (list (list*->array 2 '((12 13)))
                          (list*->array 2 '((14)))
                          (list*->array 2 '((15 16 17))))))) ;; to match this array
=> error

Procedure: array-ref array . multi-index

Assumes that array is an array, and multi-index is a sequence of exact integers.

Returns (apply (array-getter array) multi-index).

It is an error if array is not an array, if the number of elements in multi-index is not the the dimension of array, or if multi-index is not in the domain of array, so, in particular, if array is empty.

Example:

(let ((A (make-array (make-interval '#(10000 10000)) expt)))
  (array-ref A 5 37)  ;; => 72759576141834259033203125
  (array-ref A 37 5)) ;; => 69343957

Procedure: array-set! array object . multi-index

Assumes that array is a mutable array, that object is a value that can be stored within that array, and that multi-index is a sequence of exact integers.

Returns (apply (array-setter array) object multi-index).

It is an error if array is not a mutable array, if object is not an appropriate value to be stored in that array, if the number of elements in multi-index is not the the dimension of array, or if multi-index is not in the domain of array, so, in particular, if array is empty.

Example:

(let ((A (array-copy
          (list*->array 1 (iota 1000))
          generic-storage-class
          #t)))   ;; ensure array is mutable
  (array-ref A 500)         ;; => 500
  (array-set! A 'grok 500)
  (array-ref A 500))        ;; => grok

Note: In the sample implementation, because array-ref and array-set! take a variable number of arguments and they must check that A is an array of the appropriate type, programs written in a style using these procedures, rather than the style in which 1D-Haar-loop is coded below, can take up to three times as long runtime.

Note: In the sample implementation, checking whether the multi-indices are exact integers and within the domain of the array, and checking whether the value is appropriate for storage into the array, is delegated to the underlying definition of the array argument. If the first argument is a safe specialized array, then these items are checked; if it is an unsafe specialized array, they are not. If it is a generalized array, it is up to the programmer whether to define the getter and setter of the array to check the correctness of the arguments.

Procedure: specialized-array-reshape array interval [ copy-on-failure? #f ]

Assumes that array is a specialized array, interval is an interval with the same volume as (array-domain array), and copy-on-failure?, if given, is a boolean.

If there is an affine map that takes the multi-indices in interval to the cells in (array-body array) storing the elements of array in lexicographical order, specialized-array-reshape returns a new specialized array, with the same body and elements as array and domain interval. The result inherits its mutability and safety from array.

If there is not an affine map that takes the multi-indices in interval to the cells storing the elements of array in lexicographical order and copy-on-failure? is #t, then returns a specialized array copy of array with domain interval, storage class (array-storage-class array), mutability (mutable-array? array), and safety (array-safe? array).

It is an error if these conditions on the arguments are not met.

Note: The code in the sample implementation to determine whether there exists an affine map from interval to the multi-indices of the elements of array in lexicographical order is modeled on the corresponding code in the Python library NumPy.

Note: In the sample implementation, if an array cannot be reshaped and copy-on-failure? is #f, an error is raised in tail position. An implementation might want to replace this error call with a continuable exception to give the programmer more flexibility.

Examples: Reshaping an array is not a Bawden-type array transform. For example, we use array-display defined below to see:

;;; The entries of A are the multi-indices of the locations

(define A (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(3 4)) list)))

(array-display A)

;;; Displays

;;; (0 0)   (0 1)   (0 2)   (0 3)
;;; (1 0)   (1 1)   (1 2)   (1 3)
;;; (2 0)   (2 1)   (2 2)   (2 3)

(array-display (array-permute A '#(1 0)))

;;; Displays

;;; (0 0)   (1 0)   (2 0)
;;; (0 1)   (1 1)   (2 1)
;;; (0 2)   (1 2)   (2 2)
;;; (0 3)   (1 3)   (2 3)

(array-display (specialized-array-reshape A (make-interval '#(4 3))))

;;; Displays

;;; (0 0)   (0 1)   (0 2)
;;; (0 3)   (1 0)   (1 1)
;;; (1 2)   (1 3)   (2 0)
;;; (2 1)   (2 2)   (2 3)

(define B (array-sample A '#(2 1)))

(array-display B)

;;; Displays

;;; (0 0)   (0 1)   (0 2)   (0 3)
;;; (2 0)   (2 1)   (2 2)   (2 3)

(array-display (specialized-array-reshape B (make-interval '#(8)))) => fails

(array-display (specialized-array-reshape B (make-interval '#(8)) #t))

;;; Displays

;;; (0 0)   (0 1)   (0 2)   (0 3)   (2 0)   (2 1)   (2 2)   (2 3)

The following examples succeed:

(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list))
 (make-interval '#(6)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list))
 (make-interval '#(3 2)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)))
 (make-interval '#(6)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)))
 (make-interval '#(3 2)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)) '#(#f #f #f #t))
 (make-interval '#(3 2)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)) '#(#f #f #f #t))
 (make-interval '#(3 1 2 1)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-sample
  (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 4 1)) list))
                 '#(#f #f #f #t))
  '#(1 1 2 1))
 (make-interval '#(4)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-sample (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 4 1)) list))
                              '#(#t #f #t #t))
               '#(1 1 2 1))
 (make-interval '#(4)))

The following examples raise an exception:

(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)) '#(#t #f #f #f))
 (make-interval '#(6)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)) '#(#t #f #f #f))
 (make-interval '#(3 2)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)) '#(#f #f #t #f))
 (make-interval '#(6)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list)) '#(#f #f #t #t))
 (make-interval '#(3 2)))
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-sample
  (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 3 1)) list))
                 '#(#f #f #f #t))
  '#(1 1 2 1))
 (make-interval '#(4)) )
(specialized-array-reshape
 (array-sample
  (array-reverse (array-copy (make-array (make-interval '#(2 1 4 1)) list))
                 '#(#f #f #t #t))
  '#(1 1 2 1))
 (make-interval '#(4)))

In the next examples, we start with vector fields, $100\times 100$ arrays of 4-vectors. In one example, we reshape each large array to $100\times 100\times2\times2$ vector fields (so we consider each 4-vector as a $2\times 2$ matrix), and multiply the $2\times 2$ matrices together. In the second example, we reshape each 4-vector to a $2\times 2$ matrix individually, and compare the times.

(define interval-flat (make-interval '#(100 100 4)))

(define interval-2x2  (make-interval '#(100 100 2 2)))

(define A (array-copy (make-array interval-flat (lambda args (random-integer 5)))))

(define B (array-copy (make-array interval-flat (lambda args (random-integer 5)))))

(define C (array-copy (make-array interval-flat (lambda args 0))))

(define (2x2-matrix-multiply-into! A B C)
  (let ((C! (array-setter C))
        (A_ (array-getter A))
        (B_ (array-getter B)))
    (C! (+ (* (A_ 0 0) (B_ 0 0))
           (* (A_ 0 1) (B_ 1 0)))
        0 0)
    (C! (+ (* (A_ 0 0) (B_ 0 1))
           (* (A_ 0 1) (B_ 1 1)))
        0 1)
    (C! (+ (* (A_ 1 0) (B_ 0 0))
           (* (A_ 1 1) (B_ 1 0)))
        1 0)
    (C! (+ (* (A_ 1 0) (B_ 0 1))
           (* (A_ 1 1) (B_ 1 1)))
        1 1)))

;;; Reshape A, B, and C to change all the 4-vectors to 2x2 matrices

(time
 (array-for-each 2x2-matrix-multiply-into!
                 (array-curry (specialized-array-reshape A interval-2x2) 2)
                 (array-curry (specialized-array-reshape B interval-2x2) 2)
                 (array-curry (specialized-array-reshape C interval-2x2) 2)))
;;; Displays

;;;    0.015186 secs real time
;;;    0.015186 secs cpu time (0.015186 user, 0.000000 system)
;;;    4 collections accounting for 0.004735 secs real time (0.004732 user, 0.000000 system)
;;;    46089024 bytes allocated
;;;    no minor faults
;;;    no major faults

;;; Reshape each 4-vector to a 2x2 matrix individually

(time
 (array-for-each (lambda (A B C)
                   (2x2-matrix-multiply-into!
                    (specialized-array-reshape A (make-interval '#(2 2)))
                    (specialized-array-reshape B (make-interval '#(2 2)))
                    (specialized-array-reshape C (make-interval '#(2 2)))))
                 (array-curry A 1)
                 (array-curry B 1)
                 (array-curry C 1)))

;;; Displays

;;;    0.039193 secs real time
;;;    0.039193 secs cpu time (0.039191 user, 0.000002 system)
;;;    6 collections accounting for 0.006855 secs real time (0.006851 user, 0.000001 system)
;;;    71043024 bytes allocated
;;;    no minor faults
;;;    no major faults

Implementation

We provide a sample implementation in Gambit Scheme; the nonstandard techniques used in the implementation are define-structure, define-macro, and DSSSL optional arguments. The sample implementation open codes specialized versions of algorithms for intervals and arrays of dimension no greater than 4, but a simple implementation could employ only the general algorithms that are used for dimensions greater than 4.

There is a git repository of this document, a sample implementation, a test file, and other materials.

Relationship to other array libraries

Other SRFIs

Final SRFIs 25, 47, 58, and 63 deal with "Multi-dimensional Array Primitives", "Array", "Array Notation", and "Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Arrays", respectively. Each of these previous SRFIs deal with what we call in this SRFI specialized arrays. Many of the procedures in these previous SRFIs have corresponding forms in this SRFI. For example, from SRFI 63, we can translate:

(array? object)
(array? object)
(array-rank A)
(array-dimension A)
(make-array prototype k1 ...)
(make-specialized-array (make-interval (vector k1 ...))).
(make-shared-array A mapper k1 ...)
(specialized-array-share A (make-interval (vector k1 ...)) mapper)
(array-in-bounds? A index1 ...)
(interval-contains-multi-index? (array-domain A) index1 ...)
(array-ref A k1 ...)
(let ((A_ (array-getter A))) ... (A_ k1 ...) ... ) or (array-ref A k1 ...)
(array-set! A object k1 ...)
(let ((A! (array-setter A))) ... (A! object k1 ...) ...) or (array-set! A object k1 ...)

Racket's array library

Racket has an extensive array library, written by Neil Toronto, as part of its "Math Library". I do not claim to have a complete understanding of Racket's array library, but attempt here to give a superficial comparison of some aspects of Racket's library with this proposal:

Other examples

Image processing applications provided significant motivation for this SRFI.

Manipulating images in PGM format. On a system with eight-bit chars, one can write procedures to read and write greyscale images in the PGM format of the Netpbm package as follows. The lexicographical order in array-copy guarantees the the correct order of execution of the input procedures:

(define make-pgm   cons)
(define pgm-greys  car)
(define pgm-pixels cdr)

(define (read-pgm file)

  (define (read-pgm-object port)
    (skip-white-space port)
    (let ((o (read port)))
      ;; to skip the newline or next whitespace
      (read-char port)
      (if (eof-object? o)
          (error "reached end of pgm file")
          o)))

  (define (skip-to-end-of-line port)
    (let loop ((ch (read-char port)))
      (if (not (eq? ch #\newline))
          (loop (read-char port)))))

  (define (white-space? ch)
    (case ch
      ((#\newline #\space #\tab) #t)
      (else #f)))

  (define (skip-white-space port)
    (let ((ch (peek-char port)))
      (cond ((white-space? ch)
             (read-char port)
             (skip-white-space port))
            ((eq? ch #\#)
             (skip-to-end-of-line port)
             (skip-white-space port))
            (else #f))))

  ;; The image file formats defined in netpbm
  ;; are problematical because they read the data
  ;; in the header as variable-length ISO-8859-1 text,
  ;; including arbitrary whitespace and comments,
  ;; and then they may read the rest of the file
  ;; as binary data.
  ;; So we give here a solution of how to deal
  ;; with these subtleties in Gambit Scheme.

  (call-with-input-file
      (list path:          file
            char-encoding: 'ISO-8859-1
            eol-encoding:  'lf)
    (lambda (port)

      ;; We're going to read text for a while,
      ;; then switch to binary.
      ;; So we need to turn off buffering until
      ;; we switch to binary.

      (port-settings-set! port '(buffering: #f))

      (let* ((header  (read-pgm-object port))
             (columns (read-pgm-object port))
             (rows    (read-pgm-object port))
             (greys   (read-pgm-object port)))

        ;; Now we switch back to buffering
        ;; to speed things up.

        (port-settings-set! port '(buffering: #t))

        (make-pgm
         greys
         (array-copy
          (make-array
           (make-interval (vector rows columns))
           (cond ((or (eq? header 'p5)
                      (eq? header 'P5))
                  ;; pgm binary
                  (if (< greys 256)
                      ;; one byte/pixel
                      (lambda (i j)
                        (char->integer
                         (read-char port)))
                      ;; two bytes/pixel,
                      ;;little-endian
                      (lambda (i j)
                        (let* ((first-byte
                                (char->integer
                                 (read-char port)))
                               (second-byte
                                (char->integer
                                 (read-char port))))
                          (+ (* second-byte 256)
                             first-byte)))))
                 ;; pgm ascii
                 ((or (eq? header 'p2)
                      (eq? header 'P2))
                  (lambda (i j)
                      (read port)))
                   (else
                    (error "not a pgm file"))))
          (if (< greys 256)
              u8-storage-class
              u16-storage-class)))))))

(define (write-pgm pgm-data file #!optional force-ascii)
  (call-with-output-file
      (list path:          file
            char-encoding: 'ISO-8859-1
            eol-encoding:  'lf)
    (lambda (port)
      (let* ((greys
              (pgm-greys pgm-data))
             (pgm-array
              (pgm-pixels pgm-data))
             (domain
              (array-domain pgm-array))
             (rows
              (fx- (interval-upper-bound domain 0)
                   (interval-lower-bound domain 0)))
             (columns
              (fx- (interval-upper-bound domain 1)
                   (interval-lower-bound domain 1))))
        (if force-ascii
            (display "P2" port)
            (display "P5" port))
        (newline port)
        (display columns port) (display  port)
        (display rows port) (newline port)
        (display greys port) (newline port)
        (array-for-each
         (if force-ascii
             (let ((next-pixel-in-line 1))
               (lambda (p)
                 (write p port)
                 (if (fxzero? (fxand next-pixel-in-line 15))
                     (begin
                       (newline port)
                       (set! next-pixel-in-line 1))
                     (begin
                       (display  port)
                       (set! next-pixel-in-line
                             (fx+ 1 next-pixel-in-line))))))
             (if (fx< greys 256)
                 (lambda (p)
                   (write-u8 p port))
                 (lambda (p)
                   (write-u8 (fxand p 255) port)
                   (write-u8 (fxarithmetic-shift-right p 8)
                             port))))
         pgm-array)))))

One can write a procedure to convolve an image with a filter as follows:

(define (array-convolve source filter)
  (let* ((source-domain
          (array-domain source))
         (S_
          (array-getter source))
         (filter-domain
          (array-domain filter))
         (F_
          (array-getter filter))
         (result-domain
          (interval-dilate
           source-domain
           ;; the left bound of an interval is an equality,
           ;; the right bound is an inequality, hence the
           ;; the difference in the following two expressions
           (vector-map -
                       (interval-lower-bounds->vector filter-domain))
           (vector-map (lambda (x)
                         (- 1 x))
                       (interval-upper-bounds->vector filter-domain)))))
    (make-array result-domain
                (lambda (i j)
                  (array-foldl
                   (lambda (p q)
                     (+ p q))
                   0
                   (make-array
                    filter-domain
                    (lambda (k l)
                      (* (S_ (+ i k)
                             (+ j l))
                         (F_ k l))))))
                )))

together with some filters

(define sharpen-filter
  (list->array
   (make-interval '#(-1 -1) '#(2 2))
   '(0 -1  0
    -1  5 -1
     0 -1  0)))

(define edge-filter
  (list->array
   (make-interval '#(-1 -1) '#(2 2))
   '(0 -1  0
    -1  4 -1
     0 -1  0)))

Our computations might results in pixel values outside the valid range, so we define

(define (round-and-clip pixel max-grey)
  (max 0 (min (exact (round pixel)) max-grey)))

We can then compute edges and sharpen a test image as follows:

(define test-pgm (read-pgm "girl.pgm"))

(let ((greys (pgm-greys test-pgm)))
  (write-pgm
   (make-pgm
    greys
    (array-map (lambda (p)
                 (round-and-clip p greys))
               (array-convolve
                (pgm-pixels test-pgm)
                sharpen-filter)))
   "sharper-test.pgm"))

(let* ((greys (pgm-greys test-pgm))
       (edge-array
        (array-copy
         (array-map
          abs
          (array-convolve
           (pgm-pixels test-pgm)
           edge-filter))))
       (max-pixel
        (array-foldl max 0 edge-array))
       (normalizer
        (inexact (/ greys max-pixel))))
  (write-pgm
   (make-pgm
    greys
    (array-map (lambda (p)
                 (- greys
                    (round-and-clip (* p normalizer) greys)))
               edge-array))
   "edge-test.pgm"))

Viewing two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional data. One example might be viewing two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional data in different ways. If one has a $1024 \times 512\times 512$ 3D image of the body stored as a variable body, then one could get 1024 axial views, each $512\times512$, of this 3D body by (array-curry body 2); or 512 median views, each $1024\times512$, by (array-curry (array-permute body (index-first 3 1)) 2); or finally 512 frontal views, each again $1024\times512$ pixels, by (array-curry (array-permute body (index-first 3 2)) 2); see Anatomical plane. Note that you want to have the head up in both the median and frontal views, so we use index-first to provide the appropriate permutations.

Calculating second differences of images. For another example, if a real-valued function is defined on a two-dimensional interval $I$, its second difference in the direction $d$ at the point $x$ is defined as $\Delta^2_df(x)=f(x+2d)-2f(x+d)+f(x)$, and this function is defined only for those $x$ for which $x$, $x+d$, and $x+2d$ are all in $I$. See the beginning of the section on "Moduli of smoothness" in these notes on wavelets and approximation theory for more details.

Using this definition, the following code computes all second-order forward differences of an image in the directions $d,2 d,3 d,\ldots$, defined only on the domains where this makes sense:

(define (all-second-differences image direction)
  (let ((image-domain (array-domain image)))
    (let loop ((i 1)
               (result '()))
      (let ((negative-scaled-direction
             (vector-map (lambda (j)
                           (* -1 j i))
                         direction))
            (twice-negative-scaled-direction
             (vector-map (lambda (j)
                           (* -2 j i))
                         direction)))
        (cond ((interval-intersect
                image-domain
                (interval-translate
                 image-domain
                 negative-scaled-direction)
                (interval-translate
                 image-domain
                 twice-negative-scaled-direction))
               =>
               (lambda (subdomain)
                 (loop
                  (+ i 1)
                  (cons
                   (array-copy
                    (array-map
                     (lambda (f_i f_i+d f_i+2d)
                       (+ f_i+2d
                          (* -2. f_i+d)
                          f_i))
                     (array-extract
                      image
                      subdomain)
                     (array-extract
                      (array-translate
                       image
                       negative-scaled-direction)
                      subdomain)
                     (array-extract
                      (array-translate
                       image
                       twice-negative-scaled-direction)
                      subdomain)))
                   result))))
              (else
               (reverse result)))))))

We can define a small synthetic image of size 8x8 pixels and compute its second differences in various directions:

(define image
 (array-copy
  (make-array (make-interval '#(8 8))
              (lambda (i j)
                (exact->inexact (+ (* i i) (* j j)))))))

(define (expose difference-images)
  (pretty-print (map (lambda (difference-image)
                       (list (array-domain difference-image)
                             (array->list difference-image)))
                     difference-images)))

(begin
  (display
   "\nSecond-differences in the direction $k\times (1,0)$:\n")
  (expose (all-second-differences image '#(1 0)))
  (display
   "\nSecond-differences in the direction $k\times (1,1)$:\n")
  (expose (all-second-differences image '#(1 1)))
  (display
   "\nSecond-differences in the direction $k\times (1,-1)$:\n")
  (expose (all-second-differences image '#(1 -1))))

On Gambit 4.8.5, this yields (after some hand editing):

Second-differences in the direction $k\times (1,0)$:
((#<##interval #2 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(6 8)>
 (2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
  2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
  2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.))
 (#<##interval #3 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 8)>
  (8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8.
   8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8.))
 (#<##interval #4 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(2 8)>
  (18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.
   18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.)))

Second-differences in the direction $k\times (1,1)$:
((#<##interval #5 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(6 6)>
  (4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
   4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.))
 (#<##interval #6 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
  (16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
   16. 16.))
 (#<##interval #7 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(2 2)>
  (36. 36. 36. 36.)))

Second-differences in the direction $k\times (1,-1)$:
((#<##interval #8 lower-bounds: #(0 2) upper-bounds: #(6 8)>
  (4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
   4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.))
 (#<##interval #9 lower-bounds: #(0 4) upper-bounds: #(4 8)>
  (16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
   16. 16.))
 (#<##interval #10 lower-bounds: #(0 6) upper-bounds: #(2 8)>
  (36. 36. 36. 36.)))

You can see that with differences in the direction of only the first coordinate, the domains of the difference arrays get smaller in the first coordinate while staying the same in the second coordinate, and with differences in the diagonal directions, the domains of the difference arrays get smaller in both coordinates.

Separable operators. Many multi-dimensional transforms in signal processing are separable, in that the multi-dimensional transform can be computed by applying one-dimensional transforms in each of the coordinate directions. Examples of such transforms include the Fast Fourier Transform and the Fast Hyperbolic Wavelet Transform. Each one-dimensional subdomain of the complete domain is called a pencil, and the same one-dimensional transform is applied to all pencils in a given direction. Given the one-dimensional array transform, one can define the multidimensional transform as follows:

(define (make-separable-transform 1D-transform)
  (lambda (a)
    (let ((n (array-dimension a)))
      (do ((d 0 (fx+ d 1)))
          ((fx= d n))
        (array-for-each
         1D-transform
         (array-curry (array-permute a (index-last n d)) 1))))))

Here we put each axis in turn at the end and then apply 1D-transform to each of the pencils along that axis.

Wavelet transforms in particular are calculated by recursively applying a transform to an array and then downsampling the array; the inverse transform recursively downsamples and then applies a transform. So we define the following primitives:

(define (recursively-apply-transform-and-downsample transform)
  (lambda (a)
    (let ((sample-vector (make-vector (array-dimension a) 2)))
      (define (helper a)
        (if (fx< 1 (interval-upper-bound (array-domain a) 0))
            (begin
              (transform a)
              (helper (array-sample a sample-vector)))))
      (helper a))))

(define (recursively-downsample-and-apply-transform transform)
  (lambda (a)
    (let ((sample-vector (make-vector (array-dimension a) 2)))
      (define (helper a)
        (if (fx< 1 (interval-upper-bound (array-domain a) 0))
            (begin
              (helper (array-sample a sample-vector))
              (transform a))))
      (helper a))))

By adding a single loop that calculates scaled sums and differences of adjacent elements in a one-dimensional array, we can define various Haar wavelet transforms as follows:

(define (1D-Haar-loop a)
  (let ((a_ (array-getter a))
        (a! (array-setter a))
        (n (interval-upper-bound (array-domain a) 0)))
    (do ((i 0 (fx+ i 2)))
        ((fx= i n))
      (let* ((a_i               (a_ i))
             (a_i+1             (a_ (fx+ i 1)))
             (scaled-sum        (fl/ (fl+ a_i a_i+1) (flsqrt 2.0)))
             (scaled-difference (fl/ (fl- a_i a_i+1) (flsqrt 2.0))))
        (a! scaled-sum i)
        (a! scaled-difference (fx+ i 1))))))

(define 1D-Haar-transform
  (recursively-apply-transform-and-downsample 1D-Haar-loop))

(define 1D-Haar-inverse-transform
  (recursively-downsample-and-apply-transform 1D-Haar-loop))

(define hyperbolic-Haar-transform
  (make-separable-transform 1D-Haar-transform))

(define hyperbolic-Haar-inverse-transform
  (make-separable-transform 1D-Haar-inverse-transform))

(define Haar-transform
  (recursively-apply-transform-and-downsample
   (make-separable-transform 1D-Haar-loop)))

(define Haar-inverse-transform
  (recursively-downsample-and-apply-transform
   (make-separable-transform 1D-Haar-loop)))

We then define an image that is a multiple of a single, two-dimensional hyperbolic Haar wavelet, compute its hyperbolic Haar transform (which should have only one nonzero coefficient), and then the inverse transform:

(let ((image
       (array-copy
        (make-array (make-interval '#(4 4))
                    (lambda (i j)
                      (case i
                        ((0) 1.)
                        ((1) -1.)
                        (else 0.)))))))
  (display "
Initial image:
")
  (pretty-print (list (array-domain image)
                      (array->list image)))
  (hyperbolic-Haar-transform image)
  (display "\nArray of hyperbolic Haar wavelet coefficients: \n")
  (pretty-print (list (array-domain image)
                      (array->list image)))
  (hyperbolic-Haar-inverse-transform image)
  (display "\nReconstructed image: \n")
  (pretty-print (list (array-domain image)
                      (array->list image))))

This yields:

Initial image:
(#<##interval #11 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
 (1. 1. 1. 1. -1. -1. -1. -1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.))

Array of hyperbolic Haar wavelet coefficients:
(#<##interval #11 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
 (0. 0. 0. 0. 2.8284271247461894 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.))

Reconstructed image:
(#<##interval #11 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
 (.9999999999999996
  .9999999999999996
  .9999999999999996
  .9999999999999996
  -.9999999999999996
  -.9999999999999996
  -.9999999999999996
  -.9999999999999996
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.))

In perfect arithmetic, this hyperbolic Haar transform is orthonormal, in that the sum of the squares of the elements of the image is the same as the sum of the squares of the hyperbolic Haar coefficients of the image. We can see that this is approximately true here.

We can apply the (nonhyperbolic) Haar transform to the same image as follows:

(let ((image
       (array-copy
        (make-array (make-interval '#(4 4))
                    (lambda (i j)
                      (case i
                        ((0) 1.)
                        ((1) -1.)
                        (else 0.)))))))
  (display "\nInitial image:\n")
  (pretty-print (list (array-domain image)
                      (array->list image)))
  (Haar-transform image)
  (display "\nArray of Haar wavelet coefficients: \n")
  (pretty-print (list (array-domain image)
                      (array->list image)))
  (Haar-inverse-transform image)
  (display "\nReconstructed image: \n")
  (pretty-print (list (array-domain image)
                      (array->list image))))

This yields:

Initial image:
(#<##interval #12 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
 (1. 1. 1. 1. -1. -1. -1. -1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.))

Array of Haar wavelet coefficients:
(#<##interval #12 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
 (0. 0. 0. 0. 1.9999999999999998 0. 1.9999999999999998 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.))

Reconstructed image:
(#<##interval #12 lower-bounds: #(0 0) upper-bounds: #(4 4)>
 (.9999999999999997
  .9999999999999997
  .9999999999999997
  .9999999999999997
  -.9999999999999997
  -.9999999999999997
  -.9999999999999997
  -.9999999999999997
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.
  0.))

You see in this example that this particular image has two, not one, nonzero coefficients in the two-dimensional Haar transform, which is again approximately orthonormal.

Matrix multiplication and Gaussian elimination. While we have avoided conflating matrices and arrays, we give here some examples of matrix operations defined using operations from this SRFI.

Given a nonsingular square matrix $A$ we can overwrite $A$ with lower-triangular matrix $L$ with ones on the diagonal and upper-triangular matrix $U$ so that $A=LU$ as follows. (We assume "pivoting" isn't needed.) For example, if $$A=\begin{pmatrix} a_{11}&a_{12}&a_{13}\\ a_{21}&a_{22}&a_{23}\\ a_{31}&a_{32}&a_{33}\end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix} 1&0&0\\ \ell_{21}&1&0\\ \ell_{31}&\ell_{32}&1\end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix} u_{11}&u_{12}&u_{13}\\ 0&u_{22}&u_{23}\\ 0&0&u_{33}\end{pmatrix}$$ then $A$ is overwritten with $$ \begin{pmatrix} u_{11}&u_{12}&u_{13}\\ \ell_{21}&u_{22}&u_{23}\\ \ell_{31}&\ell_{32}&u_{33}\end{pmatrix}. $$ The code uses array-map, array-assign!, specialized-array-share, array-extract, and array-outer-product.

(define (LU-decomposition A)
  ;; Assumes the domain of A is [0,n)\times [0,n)
  ;; and that Gaussian elimination can be applied
  ;; without pivoting.
  (let ((n
         (interval-upper-bound (array-domain A) 0))
        (A_
         (array-getter A)))
    (do ((i 0 (fx+ i 1)))
        ((= i (fx- n 1)) A)
      (let* ((pivot
              (A_ i i))
             (column/row-domain
              ;; both will be one-dimensional
              (make-interval (vector (+ i 1))
                             (vector n)))
             (column
              ;; the column below the (i,i) entry
              (specialized-array-share A
                                       column/row-domain
                                       (lambda (k)
                                         (values k i))))
             (row
              ;; the row to the right of the (i,i) entry
              (specialized-array-share A
                                       column/row-domain
                                       (lambda (k)
                                         (values i k))))

             ;; the subarray to the right and
             ;; below the (i,i) entry
             (subarray
              (array-extract
               A (make-interval
                  (vector (fx+ i 1) (fx+ i 1))
                  (vector n         n)))))
        ;; Compute multipliers.
        (array-assign!
         column
         (array-map (lambda (x)
                      (/ x pivot))
                    column))
        ;; Subtract the outer product of i'th
        ;; row and column from the subarray.
        (array-assign!
         subarray
         (array-map -
                    subarray
                    (array-outer-product * column row)))))))

We then define a $4\times 4$ Hilbert matrix:

(define A
  (array-copy
   (make-array (make-interval '#(4 4))
               (lambda (i j)
                 (/ (+ 1 i j))))))

(define (array-display A)

  (define (display-item x)
    (display x) (display "\t"))

  (newline)
  (case (array-dimension A)
    ((1) (array-for-each display-item A) (newline))
    ((2) (array-for-each (lambda (row)
                           (array-for-each display-item row)
                           (newline))
                         (array-curry A 1)))
    (else
     (error "array-display can't handle > 2 dimensions: " A))))

(display "\nHilbert matrix:\n\n")

(array-display A)

;;; which displays:
;;; 1       1/2     1/3     1/4
;;; 1/2     1/3     1/4     1/5
;;; 1/3     1/4     1/5     1/6
;;; 1/4     1/5     1/6     1/7

(LU-decomposition A)

(display "\nLU decomposition of Hilbert matrix:\n\n")

(array-display A)

;;; which displays:
;;; 1       1/2     1/3     1/4
;;; 1/2     1/12    1/12    3/40
;;; 1/3     1       1/180   1/120
;;; 1/4     9/10    3/2     1/2800

We can now define matrix multiplication as follows to check our result:

;;; Functions to extract the lower- and upper-triangular
;;; matrices of the LU decomposition of A.

(define (L a)
  (let ((a_ (array-getter a))
        (d  (array-domain a)))
    (make-array
     d
     (lambda (i j)
       (cond ((= i j) 1)        ;; diagonal
             ((> i j) (a_ i j)) ;; below diagonal
             (else 0))))))      ;; above diagonal

(define (U a)
  (let ((a_ (array-getter a))
        (d  (array-domain a)))
    (make-array
     d
     (lambda (i j)
       (cond ((<= i j) (a_ i j)) ;; diagonal and above
             (else 0))))))       ;; below diagonal

(display "\nLower triangular matrix of decomposition of Hilbert matrix:\n\n")
(array-display (L A))

;;; which displays:
;;; 1       0       0       0
;;; 1/2     1       0       0
;;; 1/3     1       1       0
;;; 1/4     9/10    3/2     1


(display "\nUpper triangular matrix of decomposition of Hilbert matrix:\n\n")
(array-display (U A))

;;; which displays:
;;; 1       1/2     1/3     1/4
;;; 0       1/12    1/12    3/40
;;; 0       0       1/180   1/120
;;; 0       0       0       1/2800

;;; We'll define a brief, not-very-efficient matrix multiply procedure.

(define (matrix-multiply A B)
  (array-inner-product A + * B))

;;; We'll check that the product of the result of LU
;;; decomposition of A is again A.

(define product (matrix-multiply (L A) (U A)))

(display "\nProduct of lower and upper triangular matrices \n")
(display "of LU decomposition of Hilbert matrix:\n\n")
(array-display product)

;;; which displays:
;;; 1       1/2     1/3     1/4
;;; 1/2     1/3     1/4     1/5
;;; 1/3     1/4     1/5     1/6
;;; 1/4     1/5     1/6     1/7

Conway's Game of Life. Alex Harsányi implemented Conway's Game of Life using Racket's array library; here we implement the game using this SRFI.

Our strategy is to extend the original array periodically to an array dilated by one row and column above and below, left and right:

(define (array-pad-periodically a N)
  ;; Pad a periodically with N rows and columns top and bottom, left and right.
  ;; Assumes that the domain of a has zero lower bounds.
  ;; Returns a generalized array.
  (let* ((domain (array-domain a))
         (m      (interval-upper-bound domain 0))
         (n      (interval-upper-bound domain 1))
         (a_     (array-getter a)))
    (make-array (interval-dilate domain (vector (- N) (- N)) (vector N N))
                (lambda (i j)
                  (a_ (modulo i m) (modulo j n))))))

(define (neighbor-count a)
  (let* ((big-a      (array-copy (array-pad-periodically a 1)
                                 (array-storage-class a)))
         (domain     (array-domain a))
         (translates (map (lambda (translation)
                            (array-extract (array-translate big-a translation)
                                           domain))
                          '(#(1 0) #(0 1) #(-1 0) #(0 -1)
                            #(1 1) #(1 -1) #(-1 1) #(-1 -1)))))
    ;; Returns a generalized array that contains the number
    ;; of 1s in the 8 cells surrounding each cell in the original array.
    (apply array-map + translates)))

(define (game-rules a neighbor-count)
  ;; a is a single cell, neighbor-count is the count of 1s in
  ;; its 8 neighboring cells.
  (if (= a 1)
      (if (or (= neighbor-count 2)
              (= neighbor-count 3))
          1 0)
      ;; (= a 0)
      (if (= neighbor-count 3)
          1 0)))

(define (advance a)
  ;; Returns a specialized array
  (array-copy
   (array-map game-rules a (neighbor-count a))
   (array-storage-class a)))

(define glider
  (list*->array
   2
   '((0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
     (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))
   u1-storage-class))

(define (generations a N)
  (do ((i 0 (fx+ i 1))
       (a a  (advance a)))
      ((fx= i N))
    (newline)
    (pretty-print (array->list* a))))

(generations glider 5)

which prints

((0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))

((0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))

((0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))

((0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))

((0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)
 (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0))

Inner products. Our array-inner-product procedure differs from that found in APL in a number of ways, including that the result is always an array, never a scalar.

We take some examples from the APLX Language Reference:

;; Examples from
;; http://microapl.com/apl_help/ch_020_020_880.htm

(define TABLE1
  (list->array
   (make-interval '#(3 2))
   '(1 2
     5 4
     3 0)))

(define TABLE2
  (list->array
   (make-interval '#(2 4))
   '(6 2 3 4
     7 0 1 8)))

(array-display (inner-product TABLE1 + * TABLE2))

;;; Displays
;;; 20      2       5       20
;;; 58      10      19      52
;;; 18      6       9       12

(define X (list*->array 1 '(1 3 5 7)))

(define Y (list*->array 1 '(2 3 6 7)))

(array->list* (array-inner-product X + (lambda (x y) (if (= x y) 1 0)) Y))
=>
2

Acknowledgments

The SRFI author thanks Edinah K Gnang, John Cowan, Sudarshan S Chawathe, Jamison Hope, Per Bothner, Alex Shinn, Jens Axel Søgaard, and Marc Nieper-Wißkirchen for their comments and suggestions, and Arthur A. Gleckler, SRFI Editor, for his guidance and patience.

References

  1. "multi-dimensional arrays in R5RS?", by Alan Bawden.
  2. SRFI 4: Homogeneous Numeric Vector Datatypes, by Marc Feeley.
  3. SRFI 25: Multi-dimensional Array Primitives, by Jussi Piitulainen.
  4. SRFI 47: Array, by Aubrey Jaffer.
  5. SRFI 58: Array Notation, by Aubrey Jaffer.
  6. SRFI 63: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Arrays, by Aubrey Jaffer.
  7. SRFI 164: Enhanced multi-dimensional Arrays, by Per Bothner.

Copyright

© 2016, 2018, 2020, 2022 Bradley J Lucier. All Rights Reserved.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice (including the next paragraph) shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


Editor: Arthur A. Gleckler