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here.
It will remain in draft status until 2005/07/13, or as amended. To
provide input on this SRFI, please ```
mailto:srfi-70@srfi.schemers.org
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- Received: 2005/05/08
- Draft: 2005/05/15 - 2005/07/13
- Revised: 2005/05/17

With infinities added to the number system we find that division by zero "works". It lets initialization of variables precede bounds checks and gives flexibility in placement of those checks. Limit and corner cases need not crash programs.

This SRFI reworks section 6.2 "Numbers" of R5RS to:

- include inexact real positive and negative infinities,
- define complete semantics for
``expt'`, - extend
``gcd'`and``lcm'`to exact rational numbers, - extend
``quotient'`,``modulo'`, and``remainder'`to finite real numbers, - remove a contradiction related to exactness,
- add examples, and
- make small improvements to the text.

- (expt 0 0) has many similarities to (/ 0 0). Having it return
0/0 is the right thing to do, but conflicts with R5RS, which
returns 1.
- Supporting 0/0 (versus signaling an error) makes
`limit`

more robust; should 0/0 be mandated as the result of`(expt 0 0)`

and`(/ 0 0)`

? - Should
`odd?`

and`even?`

be restricted to exact integer arguments? - Should
`round`

,`truncate`

,`ceiling`

, and`floor`

be changed to return exact integers? - Should there be exact-only versions of
`expt`

and`sqrt`

?

An operation may, however, return an exact result if it can prove that the value of the result is unaffected by the inexactness of its arguments. For example, multiplication of any number by an exact zero may produce an exact zero result, even if the other argument is inexact.By those sentences,

... Thus inexactness is a contagious property of a number.For code expecting inexact arguments, such an exception creates a latent bug which may be exercised only rarely. SRFI-63 is a case in point:

When assigning an exact number to an inexact array-type, the procedure may report a violation of an implementation restriction.Also struck is the last sentence of section 6.2.1 Numerical types:

... In order to catch uses of inexact numbers where exact numbers are required, Scheme explicitly distinguishes exact from inexact numbers.which seems to imply that each internal number representation is instantiated both in exact and inexact forms.~~This distinction is orthogonal to the dimension of type.~~

`quotient`

, `remainder`

, and
`modulo`

as `gcd`

, `lcm`

, `odd?`

, and
`even?`

to be integer operations.
But these operations become poorly behaved for inexacts outside the range where each integer has a unique representation. For instance, all large magnitude IEEE-754 numbers are integers and even (a multiple of 2) because the radix, and hence the scaling factors, are even.

Distinguishing these functions on the basis of integer arguments overlooks their generalizations to exact rational numbers:

modulo(x/y, w/z) = modulo(lcm(y, z)*x/y, lcm(y, z)*w/z)/lcm(y, z) remainder(x/y, w/z) = remainder(lcm(y, z)*x/y, lcm(y, z)*w/z)/lcm(y, z) gcd(x/y, w/z) = gcd(x, w)/lcm(y, z) lcm(x/y, w/z) = lcm(x, w)/gcd(y, z)Common-Lisp mod and rem are general to rational and real arguments:

(mod 2/3 1/5) ==> 1/15 (mod .666 1/5) ==> 0.065999985This SRFI extends

`quotient`

, `remainder`

, and
`modulo`

to work for exact rationals and inexact reals.
In inexact calculations, one is not guaranteed that results will yield
integers. Thus `odd?`

and `even?`

will
sometimes signal errors or give false negatives when inexact integer
calculations are slightly wide of their integer marks. If these
predicates instead accept only exact integers, then their behavior is
predictable; and conversion from inexacts to exacts must be explicit.

- division by 0
- taking logarithm of 0.
- product, division, sum, difference, tangent, or exponentiation whose mathematical result is outside the range of the implementation's number formats.

This SRFI mandates the real infinities for implementations with inexacts, but leaves to the implementations the decision of whether to implement 0/0 or not.

- Are there predicates for infinities?
- The new
``finite?'`

predicate will return``#f'`for infinities,``#t'`for other numbers;

``real?'`

will return``#f'`for``0/0'`; and

the two real infinities have opposite signs. - What about exact infinities?
- 1/0 + 1 = 1/0; the only numbers which can be their own increments are inexact numbers.
- Can infinities be the only inexacts an implementation supports?
- That would mean that any divisions not returning exact numbers would either signal an error or return an infinity. Most of the transcendental functions would return only infinities.
- Are real infinities rational?
- No; (mathematical) rational numbers have non-zero denominators.
- Are real infinities integers?
- Because they are not rational they cannot be integers.
- What about complex (non-real) infinities?
- Infinities in rectangular notation leads to strange beasts like 1/0+5i. I know of no mathematical system having such numbers. Polar notation allows an infinitude of numbers having infinite magnitude and finite angle. Multiplication and division of complex infinities would work, but at the price of forcing their representations to be polar.
- What about +0.0 and -0.0?
- Dealing with zero is certainly thorny; but having more varieties of zero does not make dealing with unsigned zero any easier. The limit procedure provides a mathematical alternative to non-standard analysis half-measures.

But reflexive identity is one of the most basic mathematical principals. In implementations where inexact numbers are boxed

(let ((narn (/ 0.0 0.0))) (eq? narn narn))is required to be true, which forces

`eqv?`

to return true
in the same situation:
The`Eq?`

's behavior on numbers and characters is implementation-dependent, but it will always return either true or false, andwill return true only when`eqv?`

would also return true.

`sqrt`

has been wrong since R3RS.
Prepending "For real `expt`

is very simple:
The simplicity is nice, but in the absence of infinities, the straightforward scheme implementation

procedure:exptz1 z2Returns

z1raised to the powerz2:z_1

^{z_2}= e^{z_2 log z_1}0

^{0}is defined to be equal to 1.

(define (expt b x) (exp (* x (log b))))is incapable of operating when

According to G. Sussman, the change in R5RS to

was "... attempting to follow Common Lisp and APL when it came to boundary conditions and branch cuts."0^{z}is 1 if z = 0 and 0 otherwise.

About `expt`

,
Common-Lisp says:

With log(0) being -1/0, and because exp(-1/0) is 0.0, Common-Lisp behavior would follow from:`expt`

is defined as b^{x}= e^{x}log b. This defines the principal values precisely. The range of expt is the entire complex plane. Regarded as a function of x, with b fixed, there is no branch cut. Regarded as a function of b, with x fixed, there is in general a branch cut along the negative real axis, continuous with quadrant II. The domain excludes the origin. By definition, 0^{0}=1. If b=0 and the real part of x is strictly positive, then b^{x}=0. For all other values of x, 0^{x}is an error.

(define (expt b x) (exp (* x (log b))))except when

With `(log 0)`

being -1/0, the product of `x` and
-1/0 determines the trajectory of `exp`

.
`Exp`

's domain repeats every 2*pi radians in the imaginary
direction. This multiplication rotates the negative real infinity.
If it rotates into a direction other than pure real, then the limit of
`(exp (* b (log x)))`

does not exist (because of the 2*pi
periodicity).

Common-Lisp's criterion of testing the sign of the real part of
`x` can be seen as snapping the direction of the product to
either a positive or negative real infinity.

(exp (* 1 -1/0)) ==> 0.0 (exp (* -1 -1/0)) ==> 1/0Because Common-Lisp doesn't have explicit infinities, it signals an error for negative real parts of

`(expt 0.0 0.0)`

, can be produced by
(define (exptz1z2) (exp (* (if (zero?z1) (real-partz2)z2) (logz1))))

Having real infinities enables these definitions to work when
`z1` is zero. Although the simpler definition is
mathematically satisfying, the "real-part" variant allows
`(expt 0.0 `

to return something other than
0/0 when the exponent has small imaginary parts due to inexact
inaccuracies.
`z`)

The approach of this SRFI is to use this latter definition without
excepting `(expt 0.0 0.0)`

, which either returns 0/0 or
signals an error. `(expt 0.0 `

, where
`z`)`z` has a negative real-part, returns 1/0, where Common-Lisp
signals an error. Otherwise the behavior is the same as Common-Lisp's
`expt`

.

Cleaning up the Tower: Numbers in Scheme,

The 2004 Scheme Workshop, Snowbird, Utah, October 2004.

The R5RS specification of numerical operations leads to unportable and intransparent behavior of programs. Specifically, the notion of "exact/inexact numbers" and the misleading distinction between "real" and "rational" numbers are two primary sources of confusion. Consequently, the way R5RS organizes numbers is significantly less useful than it could be. Based on this diagnosis, we propose to abandon the concept of exact/inexact numbers from Scheme altogether. In this paper, we examine designs in which exact and inexact rounding operations are explicitly separated, while there is no distinction between exact and inexact numbers. Through examining alternatives and practical ramifications, we arrive at an alternative proposal for the design of the numerical operations in Scheme.In my view the essential distinction of number-theoretic operations is that they are

Cleaning up the Tower demotes the exactness property relative to types while this SRFI promotes it. Yet both find that the exactness of procedures should play a more important role in determining the exactness of numerical results.

In their proposed system:

Any program that does not contain calls to floating-point operations always computes exactly and reproducibly, independent of the Scheme implementation it runs on.This will require either

- mandating Scheme implementations to support exact rational bignums; or
- disallowing numeric routines from returning exact rational numbers.

Full reproducibility will require extensive changes to R5RS:

- The removal of optional status for the R5RS procedures
``transcript-on'`,``transcript-off'`,``load'`,``with-output-to-file'`,``with-input-to-file'`, and``interaction-environment'`; as well as multi-argument varieties of``/'`and``-'`. - The phrase "is an error" occurs 22 times in R5RS. The response to all of those conditions must be explicitly specified.

... an exact division by zero is virtually always a symptom of a genuine programming error or of illegal input data, and the introduction of infinity will only mask this error.This is not the case in the R5RS model, where substitution of exact for inexact does not change the computation.

The advantage of returning NaN instead of raising an error is that the computation still continues, postponing the interpretation of the results to a more convenient point in the program. In this way, NaN is quite useful in numerical computations.While finding 1/0 and -1/0 to be very useful in computation, I cannot say the same for 0/0. It usually arises as the result of operating on a real infinity. Tolerating one error is useful; tolerating more than one error in a computation masks programming errors. That is why this SRFI leaves to the implementation whether to signal an error or return 0/0.

The problem with NaN is that the program control structure will mostly not recognize the NaN case explicitly. Assume we define comparisons with NaN always to result in #f, as IEEE 754 does, thenBecause it has no sensible place in the well ordering of real numbers, 0/0 (NaN) is not a real number. Thus it is an illegal argument to the comparison procedures(do ((x NaN (+ x 1))) ((> x 10)))will hang but(do ((x NaN (+ x 1))) ((not (<= x 10))))will stop, which is counter-intuitive and may be surprising.

While +inf, -inf, and NaN are quite useful for inexact computations, there is a high price to pay when they are carried over into the exact world: The rational numbers must be extended by the special objects, and the usual algebraic laws will not hold for the extension anymore.This need not be the case. This "high price" is a consequence of the proposed (section 5) "type permeability" kinds #2 and #3, which prohibit exact arguments to inexact procedures.

As shown earlier, infinities are
always inexact. Infinities being inexact makes detecting them in
exact calculations easier. Not only will the ``finite?'`,
``rational?'`, and ``exact?'` procedures return
``#f'` for infinities; but passing infinities to exact-only
or integer-only procedures is an error.

`(/ 0 0.0)`

while signaling
an error for `(/ 0.0 0)`

. This leads to the use of
exactness coercions to select behavior of
Each implementation supporting flonums must decide how to evaluate
`(/ 0.0 0.0)`

and `(expt 0.0 0.0)`

because those
functions are mathematically ill-defined for all-zero arguments.
Cases can be made for 1.0 and 0.0 because the limits of
`(/ x x)`

and `(/ 0.0 x)`

are 1.0 and 0.0
respectively. But why are we statically determining behavior in a
dynamic language? This SRFI introduces the
``limit'` procedure to produce the
mathematically expected behavior of finite and infinite limits of
functions.

Note: The type restriction for the naming convention`r'is "exact rational number":

r,r1, ...rj, ...- exact rational number

Numerical computation has traditionally been neglected by the Lisp community. Until Common Lisp there was no carefully thought out strategy for organizing numerical computation, and with the exception of the MacLisp system [Pitman83] little effort was made to execute numerical code efficiently. This report recognizes the excellent work of the Common Lisp committee and accepts many of their recommendations. In some ways this report simplifies and generalizes their proposals in a manner consistent with the purposes of Scheme.

It is important to distinguish between the mathematical numbers, the
Scheme numbers that attempt to model them, the machine representations
used to implement the Scheme numbers, and notations used to write numbers.
This report uses the types *number*, *complex*, *real*,
*rational*, and *integer* to refer to both mathematical numbers
and Scheme numbers. Machine representations such as fixed point and
floating point are referred to by names such as *fixnum* and
*flonum*.

Mathematically, numbers may be arranged into a tower of subtypes in which each level is a subset of the level above it:

number complex real rational integer

For example, 3 is an integer. Therefore 3 is also a rational,
a real, and a complex. The same is true of the Scheme numbers
that model 3. For Scheme numbers, these types are defined by the
predicates `number?`

, `complex?`

, `real?`

, `rational?`

,
and `integer?`

.

There is no simple relationship between a number's type and its representation inside a computer. Although most implementations of Scheme will offer at least two different representations of 3, these different representations denote the same integer.

Scheme's numerical operations treat numbers as abstract data, as independent of their representation as possible. Although an implementation of Scheme may use fixnum, flonum, and perhaps other representations for numbers, this should not be apparent to a casual programmer writing simple programs.

It is necessary, however, to distinguish between numbers that are
represented exactly and those that may not be. For example, indexes
into data structures must be known exactly, as must some polynomial
coefficients in a symbolic algebra system. On the other hand, the
results of measurements are inherently inexact, and irrational numbers
may be approximated by rational and therefore inexact approximations.
In order to catch uses of inexact numbers where exact numbers are
required, Scheme explicitly distinguishes exact from inexact numbers.
~~This distinction is orthogonal to the dimension of type.~~

Scheme numbers are either *exact* or *inexact*. A number is
exact if it was written as an exact constant or was derived from
exact numbers using only exact operations. A number is
inexact if it is infinite, if it was written as an inexact constant,
if it was
derived using inexact ingredients, or if it was derived using
inexact operations. Thus inexactness is a contagious
property of a number.

If two implementations produce exact results for a
computation that did not involve inexact intermediate results,
the two ultimate results will be mathematically equivalent. This is
generally not true of computations involving inexact numbers
~~since~~ because
approximate methods such as floating point arithmetic may be used,
but it is the duty of each implementation to make the result as close as
practical to the mathematically ideal result.

Rational operations such as ``+'` should always produce
exact results when given exact arguments.
If the operation is unable to produce an exact result,
then it may either report the violation of an implementation restriction
or it may silently coerce its
result to an inexact value.
See section 6.2.3 Implementation restrictions.

With the exception of `inexact->exact`

, the operations
described in this section must
~~generally~~
return inexact results when given any inexact arguments.
~~
An operation may, however, return an exact result if it can prove that
the value of the result is unaffected by the inexactness of its
arguments. For example, multiplication of any number by an exact zero
may produce an exact zero result, even if the other argument is
inexact.
~~

Implementations of Scheme which implement inexact numbers must implement positive infinity and negative infinity as unique real inexact numbers.

An optional third infinity, which is *not* real, results when
an infinity is an argument to a numerical function such that no number
(including infinities) is the correct answer. An implementation may
report a violation of an implementation restriction in any calculation
for which the result would be an unreal infinity.

Implementations of Scheme which implement inexact numbers shall also
provide the `limit`

and `finite?`

procedures.

__Function:__**limit***proc z1 z2*__Function:__**limit***proc -1/0*__Function:__**limit***proc 1/0*-
`Proc`must be a procedure taking a single inexact argument.`Limit`

computes the mathematical limit of`proc`as its argument approaches`z1`from`z1`+`z2`.`Limit`

returns a complex number or real infinity if the limit exists; and``#f'`otherwise.(limit / 0 1.0e-9) ==> 1/0 (limit / 0 -1.0e-9) ==> -1/0 (limit / -1/0) ==> 0.0 (limit / 1/0) ==> 0.0 (limit (lambda (x) (/ x x)) 0 1.0e-9) ==> 1.0 (limit (lambda (x) (/ (log x) x)) 0 1.0e-9) ==> -1/0 (limit (lambda (x) (/ (log x) x)) 0 -1.0e-9) ==> #f (limit (lambda (x) (/ (magnitude (log x)) x)) 0 -1.0e-9) ==> -1/0 (limit (lambda (x) (/ x (log x))) 0 1.0e-9) ==> 0.0 (limit sin 1/0) ==> #f (limit (lambda (x) (sin (/ x))) 0 1.0e-9) ==> #f (limit (lambda (x) (sin (/ x))) 0 -1.0e-9) ==> #f (limit (lambda (x) (sin (/ x))) 1/0) ==> 0.0 (limit (lambda (x) (/ (+ (exp (/ x)) 1))) 0 1.0e-9) ==> 0.0 (limit (lambda (x) (/ (+ (exp (/ x)) 1))) 0 -1.0e-9) ==> 1.0 (limit (lambda (x) (expt (tan x) (cos x))) (/ pi 2) 1.0e-18) ==> 1.0000000000000022

Implementations of Scheme are not required to implement the whole tower of subtypes given in section 6.2.1 Numerical types, but they must implement a coherent subset consistent with both the purposes of the implementation and the spirit of the Scheme language. For example, an implementation in which all numbers are real may still be quite useful.

Implementations may also support only a limited range of numbers of any type, subject to the requirements of this section. The supported range for exact numbers of any type may be different from the supported range for inexact numbers of that type. For example, an implementation that uses flonums to represent all its inexact real numbers may support a practically unbounded range of exact integers and rationals while limiting the range of inexact reals (and therefore the range of inexact integers and rationals) to the dynamic range of the flonum format. Furthermore the gaps between the representable inexact integers and rationals are likely to be very large in such an implementation as the limits of this range are approached.

An implementation of Scheme must support exact integers
throughout the range of numbers that may be used for indexes of
lists, vectors, and strings or that may result from computing the length of a
list, vector, or string. The `length`

, `vector-length`

,
and `string-length`

procedures must return an exact
integer, and it is an error to use anything but an exact integer as an
index. Furthermore any integer constant within the index range, if
expressed by an exact integer syntax, will indeed be read as an exact
integer, regardless of any implementation restrictions that may apply
outside this range. Finally, the procedures listed below will always
return an exact integer result provided all their arguments are exact integers
and the mathematically expected result is representable as an exact integer
within the implementation:

+ - * quotient remainder modulo max min abs numerator denominator gcd lcm floor ceiling truncate round rationalize expt

Implementations are encouraged, but not required, to support exact
integers and exact rationals of practically unlimited size and
precision, and to implement the above procedures and the
``/'` procedure in such a way that they always return exact
results when given exact arguments. If one of these procedures is
unable to deliver an exact result when given exact arguments, then it
may either report a violation of an implementation restriction or it
may silently coerce its result to an inexact number. Such a coercion
may cause an error later.

An implementation may use floating point and other approximate representation strategies for inexact numbers.

This report recommends, but does not require, that the IEEE 32-bit and 64-bit floating point standards be followed by implementations that use flonum representations, and that implementations using other representations should match or exceed the precision achievable using these floating point standards [IEEE].

In particular, implementations that use flonum representations
must follow these rules: A flonum result
must be represented with at least as much precision as is used to express any of
the inexact arguments to that operation. It is desirable (but not required) for
potentially inexact operations such as ``sqrt'`, when applied to exact
arguments, to produce exact answers whenever possible (for example the
square root of an exact 4 ought to be an exact 2).
If, however, an
exact number is operated upon so as to produce an inexact result
(as by ``sqrt'`), and if the result is represented as a flonum, then
the most precise flonum format available must be used; but if the result
is represented in some other way then the representation must have at least as
much precision as the most precise flonum format available.

Although Scheme allows a variety of written notations for numbers, any particular implementation may support only some of them. For example, an implementation in which all numbers are real need not support the rectangular and polar notations for complex numbers. If an implementation encounters an exact numerical constant that it cannot represent as an exact number, then it may either report a violation of an implementation restriction or it may silently represent the constant by an inexact number.

The syntax of the written representations for numbers is described formally in section 7.1.1 Lexical structure. Note that case is not significant in numerical constants.

A number may be written in binary, octal, decimal, or
hexadecimal by the use of a radix prefix. The radix prefixes are ``#b'` (binary), ``#o'` (octal), ``#d'` (decimal), and ``#x'` (hexadecimal). With
no radix prefix, a number is assumed to be expressed in decimal.

A
numerical constant may be specified to be either exact or
inexact by a prefix. The prefixes are ``#e'`
for exact, and ``#i'` for inexact. An exactness
prefix may appear before or after any radix prefix that is used. If
the written representation of a number has no exactness prefix, the
constant may be either inexact or exact. It is inexact if it contains
a decimal point, an exponent, a "#" character in the place of a digit,
or ends with "/0"; otherwise it is exact.

Negative infinity is written ``-1/0'` (or
``#i-1/0'`). Positive infinity is written
``1/0'` or ``+1/0'`. The (optional) non-real
infinity is written ``0/0'`. Although the written forms of
infinity look like exact rational numbers, infinities are neither
exact nor rational.

In systems with inexact numbers
of varying precisions it may be useful to specify
the precision of a constant. For this purpose, numerical constants
may be written with an exponent marker that indicates the
desired precision of the inexact
representation. The letters ``s'`, ``f'`,
``d'`, and ``l'` specify the use of `short`, `single`,
`double`, and `long` precision, respectively. (When fewer
than four internal
inexact
representations exist, the four size
specifications are mapped onto those available. For example, an
implementation with two internal representations may map short and
single together and long and double together.) In addition, the
exponent marker ``e'` specifies the default precision for the
implementation. The default precision has at least as much precision
as `double`, but
implementations may wish to allow this default to be set by the user.

3.14159265358979F0 Round to single --- 3.141593 0.6L0 Extend to long --- .600000000000000

The reader is referred to section 1.3.3 Entry format for a summary of the naming conventions used to specify restrictions on the types of arguments to numerical routines.

The examples used in this section assume that any numerical constant written using an exact notation is indeed represented as an exact number. Some examples also assume that certain numerical constants written using an inexact notation can be represented without loss of accuracy; the inexact constants were chosen so that this is likely to be true in implementations that use flonums to represent inexact numbers.

__procedure:__**number?***obj*__procedure:__**complex?***obj*__procedure:__**real?***obj*__procedure:__**rational?***obj*__procedure:__**integer?***obj*-
These numerical type predicates can be applied to any kind of argument, including non-numbers. They return

`#t`if the object is of the named type, and otherwise they return`#f`. In general, if a type predicate is true of a number then all higher type predicates are also true of that number. Consequently, if a type predicate is false of a number, then all lower type predicates are also false of that number.If

`z`is an inexact complex number, then``(real?`is true if and only if`z`)'``(zero? (imag-part`is true. If`z`))'`x`is an inexact real number, then``(integer?`is true if and only if`x`)'(and (finite?

`x`) (=`x`(round`x`)))(complex? 3+4i) ==> #t (complex? 3) ==> #t (real? 3) ==> #t (real? -2.5+0.0i) ==> #t (real? #e1e10) ==> #t (rational? 6/10) ==> #t (rational? 6/3) ==> #t (integer? 3+0i) ==> #t (integer? 3.0) ==> #t (integer? 8/4) ==> #t (complex? 1/0) ==> #t (complex? 0/0) ==> #t (real? 0/0) ==> #f (real? -1/0) ==> #t (rational? 1/0) ==> #f (rational? 0/0) ==> #f (integer? -1/0) ==> #f

*Note:*The behavior of these type predicates on inexact numbers is unreliable,~~since~~because any inaccuracy may affect the result.*Note:*In many implementations the`rational?`

procedure will be the same as`real?`

, and the`complex?`

procedure will be the same as`number?`

, but unusual implementations may be able to represent some irrational numbers exactly or may extend the number system to support some kind of non-complex numbers.

__procedure:__**exact?**`z`__procedure:__**inexact?**`z`-
These numerical predicates provide tests for the exactness of a quantity. For any Scheme number, precisely one of these predicates is true.

(exact? 5) ==> #t (inexact? 1/0) ==> #t (inexact? 0/0) ==> #t

__procedure:__**=***z1 z2 z3 ...*__procedure:__**<***x1 x2 x3 ...*__procedure:__**>***x1 x2 x3 ...*__procedure:__**<=***x1 x2 x3 ...*__procedure:__**>=***x1 x2 x3 ...*-
These procedures return

`#t`if their arguments are (respectively): equal, monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, monotonically nondecreasing, or monotonically nonincreasing.(= 1/0 1/0) ==> #t (= -1/0 -1/0) ==> #t (= 0/0 0/0) ==> #t

For any finite real number`x`:(< -1/0

`x`1/0)) ==> #t (> 1/0`x`-1/0)) ==> #tThese predicates are required to be transitive.

*Note:*The traditional implementations of these predicates in Lisp-like languages are not transitive.*Note:*While it is not an error to compare inexact numbers using these predicates, the results may be unreliable because a small inaccuracy may affect the result; this is especially true of`=`

and`zero?`

. When in doubt, consult a numerical analyst.

__library procedure:__**finite?**`z`__library procedure:__**zero?**`z`__library procedure:__**positive?**`x`__library procedure:__**negative?**`x`__library procedure:__**odd?**`n`__library procedure:__**even?**`n`-
These numerical predicates test a number for a particular property, returning

`#t`or`#f`. See note above.(positive? 1/0) ==> #t (negative? -1/0) ==> #t (finite? -1/0) ==> #f (finite? 0/0) ==> #f

__library procedure:__**max***x1 x2 ...*__library procedure:__**min***x1 x2 ...*-
These procedures return the maximum or minimum of their arguments.

(max 3 4) ==> 4 ; exact (max 3.9 4) ==> 4.0 ; inexact

For any real number`x`:(max 1/0

`x`) ==> 1/0 (min -1/0`x`) ==> -1/0*Note:*If any argument is inexact, then the result will also be inexact (unless the procedure can prove that the inaccuracy is not large enough to affect the result, which is possible only in unusual implementations). If``min'`or``max'`is used to compare numbers of mixed exactness, and the numerical value of the result cannot be represented as an inexact number without loss of accuracy, then the procedure may report a violation of an implementation restriction.

__procedure:__**+***z1 ...*__procedure:__******z1 ...*-
These procedures return the sum or product of their arguments.

(+ 3 4) ==> 7 (+ 3) ==> 3 (+) ==> 0 (+ 1/0 1/0) ==> 1/0 (+ 1/0 -1/0) ==> 0/0 (* 4) ==> 4 (*) ==> 1 (* 5 1/0) ==> 1/0 (* -5 1/0) ==> -1/0 (* 1/0 1/0) ==> 1/0 (* 1/0 -1/0) ==> -1/0 (* 0 1/0) ==> 0/0

For any finite number`z`:(+ 1/0

For any number`z`) ==> 1/0 (+ -1/0`z`) ==> -1/0`z`:(+ 0/0

`z`) ==> 0/0 (* 0/0`z`) ==> 0/0

__procedure:__**-***z1 z2*__procedure:__**-**`z`__optional procedure:__**-***z1 z2 ...*__procedure:__**/***z1 z2*__procedure:__**/**`z`__optional procedure:__**/***z1 z2 ...*-
With two or more arguments, these procedures return the difference or quotient of their arguments, associating to the left. With one argument, however, they return the additive or multiplicative inverse of their argument.

(- 3 4) ==> -1 (- 3 4 5) ==> -6 (- 3) ==> -3 (- 1/0 1/0) ==> 0/0 (/ 3 4 5) ==> 3/20 (/ 3) ==> 1/3 (/ 0.0) ==> 1/0 (/ 1.0 0) ==> 1/0 (/ -1 0.0) ==> -1/0 (/ 1/0) ==> 0.0 (/ 0 0.0) ==> 0/0 (/ 0.0 0) ==> 0/0 (/ 0.0 0.0) ==> 0/0

__library procedure:__**abs***x*-
``Abs'`returns the absolute value of its argument.(abs -7) ==> 7 (abs -1/0) ==> 1/0

__procedure:__**quotient**~~n1 n2~~x1 x2__procedure:__**remainder**~~n1 n2~~x1 x2__procedure:__**modulo**~~n1 n2~~x1 x2-
These procedures implement number-theoretic (integer) division.

`x2`should be non-zero.~~All three procedures return integers.~~``quotient'`returns an integer. If`x1`/`x2`is an integer:(quotient

`x1``x2`) ==>`x1`/`x2`(remainder`x1``x2`) ==> 0 (modulo`x1``x2`) ==> 0If

`x1`/`x2`is not an integer:(quotient

`x1``x2`) ==>`n_q`(remainder`x1``x2`) ==>`x_r`(modulo`x1``x2`) ==>`x_m`where

`n_q`is`x1`/`x2`rounded towards zero, 0 < |`x_r`| < |`x2`|, 0 < |`x_m`| < |`x2`|,`x_r`and`x_m`differ from`x1`by a multiple of`x2`,`x_r`has the same sign as`x1`, and`x_m`has the same sign as`x2`.From this we can conclude that for

~~integers~~`n1`and`n2`with`x2`not equal to 0,(=

`x1`(+ (*`x2`(quotient`x1``x2`)) (remainder`x1``x2`))) ==> #tprovided all numbers involved in that computation are exact.

(modulo 13 4) ==> 1 (remainder 13 4) ==> 1 (modulo -13 4) ==> 3 (remainder -13 4) ==> -1 (modulo 13 -4) ==> -3 (remainder 13 -4) ==> 1 (modulo -13 -4) ==> -1 (remainder -13 -4) ==> -1 (remainder -13 -4.0) ==> -1.0 ; inexact (quotient 2/3 1/5) ==> 3 (modulo 2/3 1/5) ==> 1/15 (quotient .666 1/5) ==> 3 (modulo .666 1/5) ==> 65.99999999999995e-3

__library procedure:__**gcd**~~n1~~r1 ...__library procedure:__**lcm**~~n1~~r1 ...-
These procedures return the greatest common divisor or least common multiple of their arguments. The result is always non-negative.

For exact integer arguments, these procedures are the familiar number theoretic operators:

(gcd 32 -36) ==> 4 (gcd) ==> 0 (lcm 32 -36) ==> 288 (lcm) ==> 1

For exact rational arguments,`gcd`

returns the largest rational that divides into each of its arguments a whole number of times, while`lcm`

returns the smallest rational that is an integer multiple of its arguments.(gcd 1/6 1/4) ==> 1/12 (lcm 1/6 1/4) ==> 1/2 (gcd 1/6 5/4) ==> 1/12 (lcm 1/6 5/4) ==> 5/2

__procedure:__**numerator**`q`__procedure:__**denominator**`q`-
These procedures return the numerator or denominator of their argument; the result is computed as if the argument was represented as a fraction in lowest terms. The denominator is always positive. The denominator of 0 is defined to be 1.

`(numerator (/ 6 4)) ==> 3 (denominator (/ 6 4)) ==> 2 (denominator (exact->inexact (/ 6 4))) ==> 2.0`

__procedure:__**floor***x*__procedure:__**ceiling***x*__procedure:__**truncate***x*__procedure:__**round***x*-
These procedures return integers.

``Floor'`returns the largest integer not larger than`x`.``Ceiling'`returns the smallest integer not smaller than`x`.``Truncate'`returns the integer closest to`x`whose absolute value is not larger than the absolute value of`x`.``Round'`returns the closest integer to`x`, rounding to even when`x`is halfway between two integers.*Rationale:*``Round'`rounds to even for consistency with the default rounding mode specified by the IEEE floating point standard.*Note:*If the argument to one of these procedures is inexact, then the result will also be inexact. If an exact value is needed, the result should be passed to the``inexact->exact'`procedure.(floor -4.3) ==> -5.0 (ceiling -4.3) ==> -4.0 (truncate -4.3) ==> -4.0 (round -4.3) ==> -4.0 (floor 3.5) ==> 3.0 (ceiling 3.5) ==> 4.0 (truncate 3.5) ==> 3.0 (round 3.5) ==> 4.0 ; inexact (round 7/2) ==> 4 ; exact (round 7) ==> 7 (floor 1/0) ==> 1/0 (ceiling -1/0) ==> -1/0 (truncate 0/0) ==> 0/0 (round 0/0) ==> 0/0

__library procedure:__**rationalize***x y*-
``Rationalize'`returns the*simplest*rational number differing from`x`by no more than`y`. A rational number r_1 is*simpler*than another rational number r_2 if r_1 = p_1/q_1 and r_2 = p_2/q_2 (in lowest terms) and |p_1|<= |p_2| and |q_1| <= |q_2|. Thus 3/5 is simpler than 4/7. Although not all rationals are comparable in this ordering (consider 2/7 and 3/5) any interval contains a rational number that is simpler than every other rational number in that interval (the simpler 2/5 lies between 2/7 and 3/5). Note that 0 = 0/1 is the simplest rational of all.(rationalize (inexact->exact .3) 1/10) ==> 1/3 ; exact (rationalize .3 1/10) ==> #i1/3 ; inexact (rationalize 1/0 3) ==> 1/0 (rationalize 1/0 1/0) ==> 0/0 (rationalize 3 1/0) ==> 0

__procedure:__**exp**`z`__procedure:__**log**`z`__procedure:__**sin**`z`__procedure:__**cos**`z`__procedure:__**tan**`z`__procedure:__**asin**`z`__procedure:__**acos**`z`__procedure:__**atan**`z`__procedure:__**atan**`y``x`-
These procedures are part of every implementation that supports general real numbers; they compute the usual transcendental functions.

``Log'`computes the natural logarithm of`z`(not the base ten logarithm).``Asin'`,``acos'`, and``atan'`compute arcsine (sin^{-1}), arccosine (cos^{-1}), and arctangent (tan^{-1}), respectively. The two-argument variant of``atan'`computes`(angle (make-rectangular`(see below), even in implementations that don't support general complex numbers.`x``y`))In general, the mathematical functions log, arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent are multiply defined. The value of log

`z`is defined to be the one whose imaginary part lies in the range from -pi (exclusive) to pi (inclusive). log 0 is undefined. With log defined this way, the values of sin^{-1}`z`, cos^{-1}`z`, and tan^{-1}`z`are according to the following formulae:sin

^{-1}`z`= -i log (i`z`+ sqrt(1 -`z`^{2}))cos

^{-1}`z`= pi / 2 - sin^{-1}`z`tan

^{-1}`z`= (log (1 + i`z`) - log (1 - i`z`)) / (2 i)The above specification follows [CLtL], which in turn cites [Penfield81]; refer to these sources for more detailed discussion of branch cuts, boundary conditions, and implementation of these functions. When it is possible these procedures produce a real result from a real argument.

If the function has a real-valued limit as its argument tends toward positive infinity, then that is the value returned by the function applied to 1/0. If the function has a real-valued limit as its argument tends toward negative infinity, then that is the value returned by the function applied to -1/0.

(exp 1/0) ==> 1/0 (exp -1/0) ==> 0.0 (log 1/0) ==> 1/0 (log 0.0) ==> -1/0 (log -1/0) ==> 0/0 (atan -1/0) ==> -1.5707963267948965 (atan 1/0) ==> 1.5707963267948965

The functions`sin`

,`cos`

,`tan`

,`asin`

, and`acos`

either return`0/0`

or report a violation of an implementation restriction when given`1/0`

,`-1/0`

, or`0/0`

as an argument.

__procedure:__**sqrt**`z`-
Returns the principal square root of

`z`. For real`z`The result will have either positive real part, or zero real part and non-negative imaginary part.(sqrt -5) ==> 0.0+2.23606797749979i (sqrt 1/0) ==> 1/0 (sqrt -1/0) ==> 0/0

__procedure:__**expt***z1 z2*-
Returns

`z1`raised to the power`z2`. For~~z_1 ~= 0~~inexact arguments~~z_1^z_2 = e^z_2 log z_1~~(define (expt

`z1``z2`) (exp (* (if (zero?`z1`) (real-part`z2`)`z2`) (log`z1`))))~~0^z is 1 if~~`z`= 0 and 0 otherwise.`(expt 0.0`

is 0.0 for`z`)`z`(including 1/0) having positive real part; is 1/0 for`z`(including -1/0) having negative real part; and is 0/0 or reports a violation of an implementation restriction for`z`having zero real part.(expt 5 3) ==> 125 (expt 5 -3) ==> 8.0e-3 (expt 5 0) ==> 1 (expt 0 5) ==> 0 (expt 0 5+.0000312i) ==> 0 (expt 0 -5) ==> 1/0 (expt 0 -5+.0000312i) ==> 1/0 (expt 0 0) ==> 0/0

__procedure:__**make-rectangular***x1 x2*__procedure:__**make-polar***x3 x4*__procedure:__**real-part**`z`__procedure:__**imag-part**`z`__procedure:__**magnitude**`z`__procedure:__**angle**`z`-
These procedures are part of every implementation that supports general complex numbers. Suppose

`x1`,`x2`,`x3`, and`x4`are real numbers and`z`is a complex number such that`z`=`x1`+ i`x2`=`x3`e^{i x4}Then

(make-rectangular

`x1``x2`) ==>`z`(make-polar`x3``x4`) ==>`z`(real-part`z`) ==>`x1`(imag-part`z`) ==>`x2`(magnitude`z`) ==> |`x3`| (angle`z`) ==> x_anglewhere -pi < x_angle <= pi with x_angle =

`x4`+ 2pi n for some integer n.(angle 1/0) ==> 0.0 (angle -1/0) ==> 3.141592653589793

*Rationale:*``Magnitude'`is the same as`abs`

for a real argument, but``abs'`must be present in all implementations, whereas``magnitude'`need only be present in implementations that support general complex numbers.

__procedure:__**exact->inexact**`z`__procedure:__**inexact->exact**`z`-
``Exact->inexact'`returns an inexact representation of`z`. The value returned is the inexact number that is numerically closest to the argument. If an exact argument has no reasonably close inexact equivalent, then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.``Inexact->exact'`returns an exact representation of`z`. The value returned is the exact number that is numerically closest to the argument. If an inexact argument has no reasonably close exact equivalent, then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.These procedures implement the natural one-to-one correspondence between exact and inexact integers throughout an implementation-dependent range. See section 6.2.3 Implementation restrictions.

``Exact->inexact'`and``inexact->exact'`are idempotent.

__procedure:__**number->string***z*__procedure:__**number->string***z radix*-
`Radix`must be an exact integer, either 2, 8, 10, or 16. If omitted,`radix`defaults to 10. The procedure``number->string'`takes a number and a radix and returns as a string an external representation of the given number in the given radix such that`(let ((number``number`) (radix`radix`)) (eqv? number (string->number (number->string number radix) radix)))is true. It is an error if no possible result makes this expression true.

If

`z`is inexact, the radix is 10, and the above expression can be satisfied by a result that contains a decimal point, then the result contains a decimal point and is expressed using the minimum number of digits (exclusive of exponent and trailing zeroes) needed to make the above expression true [howtoprint], [howtoread]; otherwise the format of the result is unspecified.The result returned by

``number->string'`never contains an explicit radix prefix.*Note:*The error case can occur only when`z`is not a complex number or is a complex number with a non-rational real or imaginary part.*Rationale:*If`z`is an inexact number represented using flonums, and the radix is 10, then the above expression is normally satisfied by a result containing a decimal point. The unspecified case allows for infinities, NaNs, and non-flonum representations.

__procedure:__**string->number***string*__procedure:__**string->number***string radix*-
Returns a number of the maximally precise representation expressed by the given

`string`.`Radix`must be an exact integer, either 2, 8, 10, or 16. If supplied,`radix`is a default radix that may be overridden by an explicit radix prefix in`string`(e.g.`"#o177"`). If`radix`is not supplied, then the default radix is 10. If`string`is not a syntactically valid notation for a number, then``string->number'`returns`#f`.`(string->number "100") ==> 100 (string->number "100" 16) ==> 256 (string->number "1e2") ==> 100.0 (string->number "15##") ==> 1500.0 (string->number "1/0") ==> 1/0 (string->number "-1/0") ==> -1/0`*Note:*The domain of``string->number'`may be restricted by implementations in the following ways.``String->number'`is permitted to return`#f`whenever`string`contains an explicit radix prefix. If all numbers supported by an implementation are real, then``string->number'`is permitted to return`#f`whenever`string`uses the polar or rectangular notations for complex numbers. If all numbers are integers, then``string->number'`may return`#f`whenever the fractional notation is used. If all numbers are exact, then``string->number'`may return`#f`whenever an exponent marker or explicit exactness prefix is used, or if a`#`appears in place of a digit. If all inexact numbers are integers, then``string->number'`may return`#f`whenever a decimal point is used. An implementation may return`#f`for "0/0".

Here is code for the procedures extended from R5RS:

(define (finite? z) (not (and (= z (* 2 z)) (not (zero? z))))) (define (ipow-by-squaring x n acc proc) (cond ((zero? n) acc) ((eqv? 1 n) (proc acc x)) (else (ipow-by-squaring (proc x x) (quotient n 2) (if (even? n) acc (proc acc x)) proc)))) (define (integer-expt x n) (ipow-by-squaring x n 1 *)) (define (expt z1 z2) (if (and (exact? z2) (positive? z2)) (integer-expt z1 z2) (exp (* (if (zero? z1) (real-part z2) z2) (log z1))))) (define integer-quotient quotient) (define integer-remainder remainder) (define integer-modulo modulo) (define (quotient x1 x2) (if (and (integer? x1) (integer? x2)) (integer-quotient x1 x2) (truncate (/ x1 x2)))) (define (remainder x1 x2) (if (and (integer? x1) (integer? x2)) (integer-remainder x1 x2) (- x1 (* x2 (quotient x1 x2))))) (define (modulo x1 x2) (if (and (integer? x1) (integer? x2)) (integer-modulo x1 x2) (- x1 (* x2 (floor (/ x1 x2)))))) (define integer-lcm lcm) (define integer-gcd gcd) (define (lcm . args) (/ (apply integer-lcm (map numerator args)) (apply integer-gcd (map denominator args)))) (define (gcd . args) (/ (apply integer-gcd (map numerator args)) (apply integer-lcm (map denominator args)))) (define sequence->limit (let ((almost-zero (do ((inc 1 (/ inc 2)) (linc 2 inc)) ((zero? inc) linc)))) (lambda (proc sequence) (define val (proc (cadr sequence))) (define lval (proc (car sequence))) (define (loop sequence trend ldelta) (cond ;; don't PROC last X if diverging or there is no trend ((and (null? (cdr sequence)) (not trend) (zero? ldelta)) val) ((and (null? (cdr sequence)) (not trend) (not (real? val))) #f) ((and (null? (cdr sequence)) (eq? trend 'diverging)) (and (real? val) (* (- val lval) 1/0))) (else (set! lval val) (set! val (proc (car sequence))) (if (finite? val) (let ((delta (magnitude (- val lval)))) ;;(print (car sequence) '==> val 'delta delta trend) (case trend ((converging) (cond ((null? (cdr sequence)) val) ((> delta (+ almost-zero ldelta)) #f) (else (loop (cdr sequence) trend delta)))) ((diverging) (cond ((< delta ldelta) #f) ((null? (cdr sequence)) val) (else (loop (cdr sequence) trend delta)))) (else (cond ((null? (cdr sequence)) val) ((> delta (+ almost-zero ldelta)) (loop (cdr sequence) 'diverging delta)) ((< delta ldelta) (loop (cdr sequence) 'converging delta)) (else (loop (cdr sequence) trend delta)))))) val)))) (cond ((and (finite? val) (finite? lval)) (loop (cddr sequence) #f (magnitude (- val lval)))) ((finite? lval) val) (else lval))))) (define limit (let ((almost-inc #f) (almost-inf #f) (sequence+1/0 #f) (sequence-1/0 #f)) (do ((x 1.0 (+ x x)) (x-prev 0.0 x)) ((= x 1/0) (do ((x x-prev (+ x frac)) (frac (/ x-prev 2) (/ frac 2))) ((= x 1/0)) (set! almost-inc (* 2 frac)) (set! almost-inf x)))) (set! sequence+1/0 (let ((inc (* 1024 almost-inc))) (do ((x (+ almost-inf (* -8 inc)) (+ x inc)) (lst '() (cons x lst))) ((not (finite? x)) (reverse (cons x lst)))))) (set! sequence-1/0 (map - sequence+1/0)) (lambda (proc z1 . z2) (cond ((finite? z1) (set! z2 (car z2)) (if (= z1 (+ z1 z2)) (proc z1) (let ((dec (/ z2 8.0))) (do ((x (+ z1 z2) (- x dec)) (cnt 7 (+ -1 cnt)) (lst '() (cons x lst))) ((negative? cnt) (sequence->limit proc (reverse (cons z1 lst)))))))) (else (sequence->limit proc (if (positive? z1) sequence+1/0 sequence-1/0)))))))

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THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Editor: Mike Sperber Last modified: Wed May 18 13:11:45 CEST 2005