# 217: Integer Sets

by John Cowan (text), Wolfgang Corcoran-Mathe (implementation)

## Status

This SRFI is currently in final status. Here is an explanation of each status that a SRFI can hold. To provide input on this SRFI, please send email to `srfi-217@nospamsrfi.schemers.org`. To subscribe to the list, follow these instructions. You can access previous messages via the mailing list archive.

• Draft #1 published: 2020-11-29
• Draft #2 published: 2021-01-30
• Draft #3 published: 2021-02-03
• Draft #4 published: 2021-02-08
• Finalized: 2021-02-15
• Revised to fix errata:

## Abstract

Integer sets, or isets, are unordered collections of fixnums. (Fixnums are exact integers within certain implementation-specified bounds.)

## Rationale

While it is perfectly practical to store integers in SRFI-113 sets, other algorithms can be used to represent sets of exact integers. This SRFI is almost a drop-in replacement for SRFI 113, except that `set` is replaced by `iset` in procedure names. However, comparators are not useful for integer sets, and in `iset`, `iset-unfold`, `iset-map`, and `iset-copy`, the comparator argument is omitted.

In addition, since exact integers are inherently ordered, this SRFI provides a number of procedures which have no direct equivalents in SRFI 113. These include:

• `make-range-iset`, which creates an iset given a range of integers

• `iset-min` and `iset-max`, which return the largest and smallest members

• the interval procedures, which return subsets from an existing set that are within a given interval

• the `isubset` procedures, which return subsets from an existing set that are greater than, less than, or equal to a given exact integer

Integer maps are naturally related to isets, and may be provided in a future SRFI.

## Specification

Isets are disjoint from other types of Scheme objects.

It is an error to add or remove an object for an iset while iterating over it.

### Linear update

The procedures of this SRFI, by default, are "pure functional" — they do not alter their parameters. However, this SRFI also defines "linear-update" procedures, all of whose names end in `!`. They have hybrid pure-functional/side-effecting semantics: they are allowed, but not required, to side-effect one of their parameters in order to construct their result. An implementation may legally implement these procedures as pure, side-effect-free functions, or it may implement them using side effects, depending upon the details of what is the most efficient or simple to implement in terms of the underlying representation.

It is an error to rely upon these procedures working by side effect. For example, this is not guaranteed to work:

```        (let* ((iset1 (iset 1 2 3))      ; iset1 = {1,2,3}.
iset1) ; Could be either {1,2,3} or {1,2,3,4}.
```

However, this is well-defined:

```        (let ((iset1 (iset 1 2 3)))
```

So clients of these procedures write in a functional style, but must additionally be sure that, when the procedure is called, there are no other live pointers to the potentially-modified iset (hence the term "linear update").

There are two benefits to this convention:

• Implementations are free to provide the most efficient possible implementation, either functional or side-effecting.

• Programmers may nonetheless continue to assume that isets are purely functional data structures: they may be reliably shared without needing to be copied, uniquified, and so forth.

In practice, these procedures are most useful for efficiently constructing isets in a side-effecting manner, in some limited local context, before passing the iset outside the local construction scope to be used in a functional manner.

Scheme provides no assistance in checking the linearity of the potentially side-effected parameters passed to these functions — there's no linear type checker or run-time mechanism for detecting violations.

Note that if an implementation uses no side effects at all, it is allowed to return existing isets rather than newly allocated ones, even where this SRFI explicitly says otherwise.

### Index

• Constructors: `iset`, `iset-unfold`, `make-range-iset`

• Predicates: `iset?`, `iset-contains?`, `iset-empty?`, `iset-disjoint?`

• Accessors: `iset-member`, `iset-min`, `iset-max`

• Updaters: `iset-adjoin`, `iset-adjoin!`, `iset-delete`, `iset-delete!`, `iset-delete-all`, `iset-delete-all!`, `iset-search`, `iset-search!`, `iset-delete-min`, `iset-delete-min!`, `iset-delete-max`, `iset-delete-max!`

• The whole iset: `iset-size`, `iset-find`, `iset-count`, `iset-any?`, `iset-every?`

• Mapping and folding: `iset-map`, `iset-for-each`, `iset-fold`, `iset-fold-right`, `iset-filter`, `iset-filter!`, `iset-remove`, `iset-remove!`, `iset-partition`, `iset-partition!`

• Copying and conversion: `iset-copy`, `iset->list`, `list->iset`, `list->iset!`

• Subsets: `iset=?`, `iset<?`, `iset>?`, `iset<=?`, `iset>=?`

• Set theory operations: `iset-union`, `iset-intersection`, `iset-difference`, `iset-xor`, `iset-union!`, `iset-intersection!`, `iset-difference!`, `iset-xor!`

• Intervals and ranges: `iset-open-interval`, `iset-closed-interval`, `iset-open-closed-interval`, `iset-closed-open-interval`, `isubset=`, `isubset<`, `isubset<=`, `isubset>`, `isubset>=`

### Constructors

`(iset ` element ... `)`

Returns a newly allocated iset. The elements are used to initialize the iset.

``````(iset->list (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ (2 3 5 7 11)
(iset->list (iset)) ⇒ ()
``````

`(iset-unfold `stop? mapper successor seed`)`

Create a newly allocated iset as if by `iset`. If the result of applying the predicate stop? to seed is true, return the iset. Otherwise, apply the procedure mapper to seed. The value that mapper returns is added to the iset. Then get a new seed by applying the procedure successor to seed, and repeat this algorithm.

``````(iset->list (iset-unfold (lambda (n) (> n 64))
values
(lambda (n) (* n 2))
2))
⇒ (2 4 8 16 32 64)
``````

`(make-range-iset` start end `[`step`])`

Returns a newly allocated iset specified by an inclusive lower bound start, an exclusive upper bound end, and a step value (default 1), all of which are exact integers. This constructor produces an iset containing the sequence

start`, (+` start step`), (+` start `(* 2` step`)), …, (+` start `(*` n step`))`,

where n is the greatest integer such that `(+` start `(*` n step`))` `<` end if step is positive, or such that `(+` start `(*` n step`))` `>` end if step is negative. It is an error if step is zero.

``````(iset->list (make-range-iset 25 30)) ⇒ (25 26 27 28 29)
(iset->list (make-range-iset -10 10 6)) ⇒ (-10 -4 2 8)
``````

### Predicates

`(iset? `obj`)`

Returns `#t` if obj is a iset, and `#f` otherwise.

`(iset-contains? `iset element`)`

Returns `#t` if element is a member of iset and `#f` otherwise.

``````(iset-contains? (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 5) ⇒ #t
(iset-contains? (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 4) ⇒ #f
``````

`(iset-empty? `iset`)`

Returns `#t` if iset has no elements and `#f` otherwise.

``````(iset-empty? (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ #f
(iset-empty? (iset)) ⇒ #t
``````

`(iset-disjoint? `iset1 iset2`)`

Returns `#t` if iset1 and iset2 have no elements in common and `#f` otherwise.

``````(iset-disjoint? (iset 1 3 5) (iset 0 2 4)) ⇒ #t
(iset-disjoint? (iset 1 3 5) (iset 2 3 4)) ⇒ #f
``````

### Accessors

`(iset-member `iset element default`)`

Returns the element of iset that is equal to element. If element is not a member of iset, default is returned.

``````(iset-member (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 7 #f) ⇒ 7
(iset-member (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 4 'failure) ⇒ failure
``````

`(iset-min `iset`)`
`(iset-max `iset`)`

Returns the smallest or largest integer in iset, or `#f` if there is none.

``````(iset-min (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ 2
(iset-max (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ 11
(iset-max (iset)) ⇒ #f
``````

### Updaters

`(iset-adjoin `iset element1 element2 ...`)`

The `iset-adjoin` procedure returns a newly allocated iset that contains all the values of iset, and in addition each element unless it is already equal to one of the existing or newly added members.

``````(iset->list (iset-adjoin (iset 1 3 5) 0)) ⇒ (0 1 3 5)
``````

`(iset-adjoin! `iset element1 element2 ...`)`

The `iset-adjoin!` procedure is the same as `iset-adjoin`, except that it is permitted to mutate and return the iset argument rather than allocating a new iset.

`(iset-delete `iset element1 element2 ...`)`

`(iset-delete! `iset element1 element2 ...`)`

`(iset-delete-all `iset element-list`)`

`(iset-delete-all! `iset element-list`)`

The `iset-delete` procedure returns a newly allocated iset containing all the values of iset except for any that are equal to one or more of the elements. Any element that is not equal to some member of the iset is ignored.

The `iset-delete!` procedure is the same as `iset-delete`, except that it is permitted to mutate and return the iset argument rather than allocating a new iset.

The `iset-delete-all` and `iset-delete-all!` procedures are the same as `iset-delete` and `iset-delete!`, except that they accept a single argument which is a list of elements to be deleted.

``````(iset->list (iset-delete (iset 1 3 5) 3)) ⇒ (1 5)
(iset->list (iset-delete-all (iset 2 3 5 7 11) '(3 4 5))) ⇒ (2 7 11)
``````

`(iset-delete-min `iset`)`

`(iset-delete-min! `iset`)`

`(iset-delete-max `iset`)`

`(iset-delete-max! `iset`)`

Returns two values: the smallest/largest integer n in iset and a newly-allocated iset that contains all elements of iset except for n. It is an error if iset is empty.

The `iset-delete-min!` and `iset-delete-max!` procedures are the same as `iset-delete-min` and `iset-delete-max`, respectively, except that they are permitted to mutate and return the iset argument instead of allocating a new iset.

``````(let-values (((n set) (iset-delete-min (iset 2 3 5 7 11))))
(list n (iset->list set)))
⇒ (2 (3 5 7 11))
(let-values (((n set) (iset-delete-max (iset 2 3 5 7 11))))
(list n (iset->list set)))
⇒ (11 (2 3 5 7))
``````

The iset is searched from lowest to highest value for element. If it is not found, then the failure procedure is tail-called with two continuation arguments, insert and ignore, and is expected to tail-call one of them. If element is found, then the success procedure is tail-called with the matching element of iset and two continuations, update and remove, and is expected to tail-call one of them.

The effects of the continuations are as follows (where obj is any Scheme object):

• Invoking `(`insert obj`)` causes element to be inserted into iset.

• Invoking `(`ignore obj`)` causes iset to remain unchanged.

• Invoking `(`update new-element obj`)` causes new-element to be inserted into iset in place of element.

• Invoking `(`remove obj`)` causes the matching element of iset to be removed from it.

In all cases, two values are returned: an iset and obj.

`(iset-search! `iset element failure success`)`

The `iset-search!` procedure is the same as `iset-search`, except that it is permitted to mutate and return the iset argument rather than allocating a new iset.

### The whole iset

`(iset-size `iset`)`

Returns the number of elements in iset as an exact integer.

``````(iset-size (iset 1 3 5)) ⇒ 3
``````

`(iset-find `predicate iset failure`)`

Returns the smallest element of iset that satisfies predicate, or the result of invoking failure with no arguments if there is none.

``````(iset-find positive? (iset -1 1) (lambda () #f)) ⇒ 1
(iset-find zero? (iset -1 1) (lambda () #f)) ⇒ #f
``````

`(iset-count `predicate iset`)`

Returns the number of elements of iset that satisfy predicate as an exact integer.

``````(iset-count positive? (iset -2 -1 1 2)) ⇒ 2
``````

`(iset-any? `predicate iset`)`

Returns `#t` if any element of iset satisfies predicate, or `#f` otherwise. Note that this differs from the SRFI 1 analogue because it does not return an element of the iset.

``````(iset-any? positive? (iset -2 -1 1 2)) ⇒ #t
(iset-any? zero? (iset -2 -1 1 2)) ⇒ #f
``````

`(iset-every? `predicate iset`)`

Returns `#t` if every element of iset satisfies predicate, or `#f` otherwise. Note that this differs from the SRFI 1 analogue because it does not return an element of the iset.

``````(iset-every? (lambda (x) (< x 5)) (iset -2 -1 1 2)) ⇒ #t
(iset-every? positive? (iset -2 -1 1 2)) ⇒ #f
``````

### Mapping and folding

`(iset-map `proc iset`)`

Applies proc to each element of iset in arbitrary order and returns a newly allocated iset, created as if by `iset`, which contains the results of the applications. It is an error if proc returns a value that is not an exact integer.

```(iset-map (lambda (x) (* 10 x)) (iset 1 11 21))
=> (iset 10 110 210)
```
```(iset-map (lambda (x) (quotient x 2))
(iset 1 2 3 4 5))
=> (iset 0 1 2)
```

`(iset-for-each `proc iset`)`

Applies proc to iset in increasing numerical order, discarding the returned values. Returns an unspecified result.

``````(let ((sum 0))
(iset-for-each (lambda (x) (set! sum (+ sum x)))
(iset 2 3 5 7 11))
sum)
⇒ 28
``````

`(iset-fold `proc nil iset`)`
`(iset-fold-right `proc nil iset`)`

Invokes proc on each member of iset in increasing/decreasing numerical order, passing the result of the previous invocation as a second argument. For the first invocation, nil is used as the second argument. Returns the result of the last invocation, or nil if there was no invocation.

``````(iset-fold + 0 (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ 28
(iset-fold cons '() (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ (11 7 5 3 2)
(iset-fold-right cons '() (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ (2 3 5 7 11)
``````

`(iset-filter `predicate iset`)`

Returns a newly allocated iset containing just the elements of iset that satisfy predicate.

``````(iset->list (iset-filter (lambda (x) (< x 6)) (iset 2 3 5 7 11)))
⇒ (2 3 5)
``````

`(iset-filter! `predicate iset`)`

A linear update procedure that returns a iset containing just the elements of iset that satisfy predicate.

`(iset-remove `predicate iset`)`

Returns a newly allocated iset containing just the elements of iset that do not satisfy predicate.

``````(iset->list (iset-remove (lambda (x) (< x 6)) (iset 2 3 5 7 11)))
⇒ (7 11)
``````

`(iset-remove! `predicate iset`)`

A linear update procedure that returns a iset containing just the elements of iset that do not satisfy predicate.

`(iset-partition `predicate iset`)`

Returns two values: a newly allocated iset that contains just the elements of iset that satisfy predicate and another newly allocated iset that contains just the elements of iset that do not satisfy predicate.

``````(let-values (((low high) (iset-partition (lambda (x) (< x 6))
(iset 2 3 5 7 11))))
(list (iset->list low) (iset->list high)))
⇒ ((2 3 5) (7 11))
``````

`(iset-partition! `predicate iset`)`

A linear update procedure that returns two isets containing the elements of iset that do and do not, respectively, not satisfy predicate.

### Copying and conversion

`(iset-copy `iset`)`

Returns a newly allocated iset containing the elements of iset.

`(iset->list `iset`)`

Returns a newly allocated list containing the members of iset in increasing numerical order.

``````(iset->list (iset 2 3 5 7 11)) ⇒ (2 3 5 7 11)
``````

`(list->iset `list`)`

Returns a newly allocated iset, created as if by `iset`, that contains the elements of list. Duplicate elements are omitted.

``````(list->iset '(-3 -1 0 2)) = (iset -3 -1 0 2)
``````

`(list->iset! `iset list`)`

Returns a iset that contains the elements of both iset and list. Duplicate elements are omitted. `list->iset!` may mutate iset rather than allocating a new iset.

``````(iset->list (list->iset! (iset 2 3 5) '(-3 -1 0))) ⇒ (-3 -1 0 2 3 5)
``````

### Subsets

Note: None of these predicates produces a total order on isets. In particular, `iset=?`, `iset<?`, and `iset>?` do not obey the trichotomy law.

`(iset=? `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

Returns `#t` if each iset contains the same elements.

`(iset<? `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

Returns `#t` if each iset other than the last is a proper subset of the following iset, and `#f` otherwise.

`(iset>? `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

Returns `#t` if each iset other than the last is a proper superset of the following iset, and `#f` otherwise.

`(iset<=? `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

Returns `#t` if each iset other than the last is a subset of the following iset, and `#f` otherwise.

`(iset>=? `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

Returns `#t` if each iset other than the last is a superset of the following iset, and `#f` otherwise.

Examples:

``````(iset=? (iset 1 2 3) (iset 3 1 2)) ⇒ #t
(iset<? (iset 3 1 2) (iset 4 2 1 3)) ⇒ #t
(iset>=? (iset 3 0 1) (iset 0 1) (iset 0 1)) ⇒ #t
``````

### Set theory operations

`(iset-union `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

`(iset-intersection `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

`(iset-difference `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

`(iset-xor `iset1 iset2`)`

Return a newly allocated iset that is the union, intersection, asymmetric difference, or symmetric difference of the isets. Asymmetric difference is extended to more than two isets by taking the difference between the first iset and the union of the others. Symmetric difference is not extended beyond two isets. Elements in the result iset are drawn from the first iset in which they appear.

``````(iset->list (iset-union (iset 0 1 3) (iset 0 2 4))) ⇒ (0 1 2 3 4)
(iset->list (iset-intersection (iset 0 1 3 4) (iset 0 2 4))) ⇒ (0 4)
(iset->list (iset-difference (iset 0 1 3 4) (iset 0 2) (iset 0 4))) ⇒ (1 3)
(iset->list (iset-xor (iset 0 1 3) (iset 0 2 4))) ⇒ (1 2 3 4)
``````

`(iset-union! `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

`(iset-intersection! `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

`(iset-difference! `iset1 iset2 iset3 ...`)`

`(iset-xor! `iset1 iset2`)`

Linear update procedures returning an iset that is the union, intersection, asymmetric difference, or symmetric difference of the isets. Asymmetric difference is extended to more than two isets by taking the difference between the first iset and the union of the others. Symmetric difference is not extended beyond two isets. Elements in the result iset are drawn from the first iset in which they appear.

### Intervals and ranges

`(iset-open-interval `iset low high`)`

`(iset-closed-interval `iset low high`)`

`(iset-open-closed-interval `iset low high`)`

`(iset-closed-open-interval `iset low high`)`

Procedures that return a subset of iset contained in the interval from low to high. The interval may be open, closed, open below and closed above, or open above and closed below.

``````(iset->list (iset-open-interval (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 2 7)) ⇒ (3 5)
(iset->list (iset-closed-interval (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 2 7)) ⇒ (2 3 5 7)
(iset->list (iset-open-closed-interval (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 2 7)) ⇒ (3 5 7)
(iset->list (iset-closed-open-interval (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 2 7)) ⇒ (2 3 5)
``````

`(isubset= `iset k`)`

`(isubset< `iset k`)`

`(isubset<= `iset k`)`

`(isubset> `iset k`)`

`(isubset>= `iset k`)`

Procedures that return an integer set containing the elements of iset that are equal to, less than, less than or equal to, greater than, or greater than or equal to k. Note that the result of `isubset=` contains at most one element.

``````(iset->list (isubset= (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 7)) ⇒ (7)
(iset->list (isubset< (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 7)) ⇒ (2 3 5)
(iset->list (isubset>= (iset 2 3 5 7 11) 7)) ⇒ (7 11)
``````

## Implementation

The sample implementation is found in the repository of this SRFI.

The implementation is based on the Patricia tree approach described by Chris Okasaki and Andrew Gill (paper linked in the implementation README), which is also used by Haskell's IntMap library. It provides fast lookup and set-theoretical operations.