180: JSON

by Amirouche Boubekki

Status

This SRFI is currently in final status. Here is an explanation of each status that a SRFI can hold. To provide input on this SRFI, please send email to srfi-180@nospamsrfi.schemers.org. To subscribe to the list, follow these instructions. You can access previous messages via the mailing list archive.

Abstract

This library describes a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) parser and printer. It supports JSON that may be bigger than memory.

Rationale

JSON is a de facto industry standard for data exchange.

For best interoperability, the sample implementation is based on RFC 8259, and the tests are based on JSONTestSuite.

The mapping between JSON types and Scheme objects is not trivial because a given mapping might not be the best for every situation. That is the reason why this library makes public the procedure json-fold, inspired by Oleg Kiselyov's foldts.

Specification

(json-error? obj) → boolean

Returns #t if OBJ is an error object that is specific to this library.

(json-error-reason obj) → string

Return a string explaining the reason for the error. This should be human-readable.

(json-null? obj) → boolean

Return #t if OBJ is the Scheme symbol 'null, which represents the JSON null in Scheme. In all other cases, return #f.

json-nesting-depth-limit parameter

Parameter holding a number that represents the maximum nesting depth of JSON text that can be read by json-generator, json-fold, and json-read. If the value returned by this parameter is reached, the implementation must raise an error that satisfies json-error?.

The default value of json-nesting-depth-limit is +inf.0.

A proper value should be set on a per-application basis to mitigate the risks of denial-of-service attacks.

json-number-of-character-limit parameter

Parameter holding a number that represents the maximum number of characters for a given JSON text that can be read by json-generator, json-fold, and json-read. If the value returned by this parameter is reached, the implementation must raise an error that satisfies json-error?.

The default value of json-number-of-character-limit is +inf.0.

A proper value should be set on a per-application basis to mitigate the risks of denial-of-service attacks.

(json-generator [port-or-generator]) → generator

Streaming event-based JSON reader. PORT-OR-GENERATOR default value is the value returned by current-input-port. It must be a textual input port or a generator of characters. json-generator returns a generator of Scheme objects, each of which must be one of:

In the case where nesting of arrays or objects reaches the value returned by the parameter json-nesting-depth-limit, the generator must raise an object that satisfies the predicate json-error?

In cases where the JSON is invalid, the generator returned by json-generator should raise an object that satisfies the predicate json-error?.

Otherwise, if PORT-OR-GENERATOR contains valid JSON text, the generator returned by json-generator must yield an end-of-file object in two situations:

In other words, the generator returned by json-generator will parse at most one JSON value or one top-level structure. If PORT is not finished, as in the case of JSON lines, the user should call json-generator again with the same PORT-OR-GENERATOR.

Examples

(assume
  (equal?
    (call-with-input-string "42 101 1337" (lambda (port) (generator->list (json-generator port))))
    '(42)))
(assume
  (equal?
    (call-with-input-string "[42] 101 1337" (lambda (port) (generator->list (json-generator port))))
    '(array-start 42 array-end)))

(json-fold proc array-start array-end object-start object-end seed [port-or-generator])

Fundamental JSON iterator.

json-fold will read the JSON text from PORT-OR-GENERATOR, which has (current-input-port) as its default value. json-fold will call the procedures passed as argument:

ARRAY-START and ARRAY-END take the same arguments, and have similar behavior, but are called for iterating on JSON arrays.

json-fold must return the seed when:

Example

json-read can be defined in terms of json-fold:


(define (%json-read port-or-generator)

  (define %root '(root))

  (define (array-start seed)
    ;; array will be read as a list, then converted into a vector in
    ;; array-end.
    '())

  (define (array-end items)
    (list->vector (reverse items)))

  (define (object-start seed)
    ;; object will be read as a property list, then converted into an
    ;; alist in object-end.
    '())

  (define (plist->alist plist)
    ;; PLIST is a list of an even number of items.  Otherwise,
    ;; json-generator would have raised a json-error.
    (let loop ((plist plist)
               (out '()))
      (if (null? plist)
          out
          (loop (cddr plist) (cons (cons (string->symbol (cadr plist)) (car plist)) out)))))

  (define object-end plist->alist)

  (define (proc obj seed)
    ;; proc is called when a JSON value or structure was completely
    ;; read.  The parse result is passed as OBJ.  In the case where
    ;; what is parsed is a simple JSON value, OBJ is simply
    ;; the token that is read.  It can be 'null, a number or a string.
    ;; In the case where what is parsed is a JSON structure, OBJ is
    ;; what is returned by OBJECT-END or ARRAY-END.
    (if (eq? seed %root)
        ;; This is toplevel.  A complete JSON value or structure was
        ;; read, so return it.
        obj
        ;; This is not toplevel, hence json-fold is called recursively
        ;; to parse an array or object.  Both ARRAY-START and
        ;; OBJECT-START return an empty list as a seed to serve as an
        ;; accumulator.  Both OBJECT-END and ARRAY-END expect a list
        ;; as argument.
        (cons obj seed)))

  (let ((out (json-fold proc
                        array-start
                        array-end
                        object-start
                        object-end
                        %root
                        port-or-generator)))
    ;; if out is the root object, then the port or generator is empty.
    (if (eq? out %root)
        (eof-object)
        out)))

(json-read [port-or-generator]) → object

JSON reader procedure. PORT-OR-GENERATOR must be a textual input port or a generator of characters. The default value of PORT-OR-GENERATOR is the value returned by the procedure current-input-port. The returned value is a Scheme object. json-read must return only the first toplevel JSON value or structure. When there are multiple toplevel values or structures in PORT-OR-GENERATOR, the user should call json-read several times to read all of it.

The mapping between JSON types and Scheme objects is the following:

In the case where nesting of arrays or objects reaches the value returned by the parameter json-nesting-depth-limit, json-read must raise an object that satisfies the predicate json-error?

(json-lines-read [port-or-generator]) → generator

JSON reader of jsonlines or ndjson. As its first and only argument, it takes a generator of characters or a textual input port whose default value is the value returned by current-input-port. It will return a generator of Scheme objects as specified in json-read.

(json-sequence-read [port-or-generator]) → generator

JSON reader of JSON Text Sequences (RFC 7464). As its first and only argument, it takes a generator of characters or a textual input port whose default value is the value returned by current-input-port. It will return a generator of Scheme objects as specified in json-read.

(json-accumulator port-or-accumulator) → procedure

Streaming event-based JSON writer. PORT-OR-ACCUMULATOR must be a textual output port or an accumulator that accepts characters and strings. It returns an accumulator procedure that accepts Scheme objects as its first and only argument and that follows the same protocol as described in json-generator. Any deviation from the protocol must raise an error that satisfies json-error?. In particular, objects and arrays must be properly nested.

Mind the fact that most JSON parsers have a nesting limit that is not documented by the standard. Even if you can produce arbitrarily nested JSON with this library, you might not be able to read it with another library.

(json-write obj [port-or-accumulator]) → unspecified

JSON writer procedure. PORT-OR-ACCUMULATOR must be a textual output port, or an accumulator that accepts characters and strings. The default value of PORT-OR-ACCUMULATOR is the value returned by the procedure current-output-port. The value returned by json-write is unspecified.

json-write will validate that OBJ can be serialized into JSON before writing to PORT. An error that satisfies json-error? is raised in the case where OBJ is not an object or a composition of the following types:

Implementation

The sample implementation is available in this Git repo.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to the participants on the SRFI 189 mailing list: Lassi Kortela, Duy Nguyen, Shiro Kawai, Alex Shinn, Marc Nieper-Wißkirchen.

Thanks to Arthur A. Gleckler and John Cowan.

Thanks to Oleg Kiselyov.

Copyright © Amirouche Boubekki (2020).

Test files under json/files copyright © Nicolas Seriot (2016).

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice (including the next paragraph) shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


Editor: Arthur A. Gleckler