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- Received: 2015/9/7
- Draft #1 published: 2015/9/7
- Draft #2 published: 2015/9/9
- Draft #3 published: 2015/9/13
- Draft #4 published: 2015/12/6
- Draft #5 published: 2015/12/17
- Draft #6 published: 2016/1/20
- Draft #7 published: 2016/5/3
- Draft #8 published: 2016/5/6
- Draft #9 published: 2016/5/7
- Draft #10 published: 2016/5/17
- Draft #11 published: 2016/5/18
- Draft #12 published: 2016/5/19
- Finalized: 2015/5/28
- Revised for clarity:
- 2017/9/12 (Clarify, esp. behavior of pop on empty table.)

This SRFI defines an interface to hash tables, which are widely recognized as a fundamental data structure for a wide variety of applications. A hash table is a data structure that:

- Is disjoint from all other types.
- Provides a mapping from objects known as
*keys*to corresponding objects known as*values*.- Keys may be any Scheme objects in some kinds of hash tables, but are restricted in other kinds.
- Values may be any Scheme objects.

- Has no intrinsic order for the key-value
*associations*it contains. - Provides an
*equality predicate*which defines when a proposed key is the same as an existing key. No table may contain more than one value for a given key. - Provides a
*hash function*which maps a candidate key into a non-negative exact integer. - Supports mutation as the primary means of setting the contents of a table.
- Provides key lookup and destructive update in (expected) amortized constant time, provided a satisfactory hash function is available.
- Does not guarantee that whole-table operations work in the presence of concurrent mutation of the whole hash table (values may be safely mutated).

Hash tables themselves don't really need defending: almost all dynamically typed languages, from awk to JavaScript to Lua to Perl to Python to Common Lisp, and including many Scheme implementations, provide them in some form as a fundamental data structure. Therefore, what needs to be defended is not the data structure but the procedures. This SRFI is at an intermediate level. It supports a great many convenience procedures on top of the basic hash table interfaces provided by SRFI 69 and R6RS. Nothing in it adds power to what those interfaces provide, but it does add convenience in the form of pre-debugged routines to do various common things, and even some things not so commonly done but useful.

There is no mandated support for thread safety, immutability, or weakness, though there are portable hooks for specifying these features.

This specification accepts separate equality predicates and hash functions for backward compatibility, but strongly encourages the use of SRFI 128 comparators, which package a type test, an equality predicate, and a hash function into a single bundle.

This SRFI is downward compatible with SRFI 69. Some procedures have been given new preferred names for compatibility with other SRFIs, but in all cases the SRFI 69 names have been retained as deprecated synonyms; implementations must still provide them, however. They appear in this SRFI in small print.

There is one absolute incompatibility with SRFI 69: the reflective procedure
`hash-table-hash-function`

may return `#f`

,
which is not permitted by SRFI 69. See the specification for details.

The relatively few hash table procedures in R6RS are all available
in this SRFI under somewhat different names. The only substantive
difference is that R6RS `hashtable-values`

and
`hashtable-entries`

return vectors, whereas in this
SRFI `hash-table-values`

and `hash-table-entries`

return lists. This SRFI adopts SRFI 69's term `hash-table`

rather than R6RS's `hashtable`

, because of the universal
use of "hash table" rather than "hashtable" in other computer languages and
in technical prose generally. Besides, the English word
*hashtable* obviously means something that can be ... hashted.

In addition, the `hashtable-ref`

and
`hashtable-update!`

of R6RS correspond to the
`hash-table-ref/default`

and
`hash-table-update!/default`

of both SRFI 69 and this SRFI.

It would be trivial to provide the R6RS names on top of this SRFI.

As usual, the Common Lisp names are completely different from the Scheme names. Common Lisp provides the following capabilities that are not in this SRFI:

- The constructor allows specifying the rehash size and rehash threshold of the new hash table. There are also accessors and mutators for these and for the current capacity (as opposed to size).

- There are hash tables based on
`equalp`

(which does not exist in Scheme).

`With-hash-table-iterator`

is a hash table external iterator implemented as a local macro.

`Sxhash`

is a implementation-specific hash function for the`equal`

predicate. It has the property that objects in different instantiations of the same Lisp implementation that are similar, a concept analogous to`equal`

but defined across all instantiations, always return the same value from`sxhash`

; for example, the symbol`xyz`

will have the same`sxhash`

result in all instantiations.

The procedures in this SRFI are drawn primarily from SRFI 69 and R6RS. In addition, the following sources are acknowledged:

- The
`hash-table-mutable?`

procedure and the second argument of`hash-table-copy`

(which allows the creation of immutable hash tables) are from R6RS, renamed in the style of this SRFI.

- The
`hash-table-intern!`

procedure is from Racket, renamed in the style of this SRFI.

- The
`hash-table-find`

procedure is a modified version of`table-search`

in Gambit.

- The procedures
`hash-table-unfold`

and`hash-table-count`

were suggested by SRFI 1.

- The procedures
`hash-table=?`

and`hash-table-map`

were suggested by Haskell's Data.Map.Strict module.

- The procedure
`hash-table-map->list`

is from Guile.

The procedures `hash-table-empty?`

,
`hash-table-empty-copy`

, `hash-table-pop!`

,
`hash-table-map!`

, `hash-table-intersection!`

,
`hash-table-difference!`

, and `hash-table-xor!`

were added for convenience and completeness.

The native hash tables of MIT, SISC, Bigloo, Scheme48, SLIB, RScheme, Scheme 7, Scheme 9, Rep, and FemtoLisp were also investigated, but no additional procedures were incorporated.

The slash in the names of some procedures can be pronounced "with".

The procedures in this SRFI are in the `(srfi 125)`

library
(or `(srfi :125)`

on R6RS).

All references to "executing in expected amortized constant time" presuppose that a satisfactory hash function is available. Arbitrary or impure hash functions can make a hash of any implementation.

Hash tables are allowed to cache the results of calling the equality predicate and hash function, so programs cannot rely on the hash function being called exactly once for every primitive hash table operation: it may be called zero, one, or more times.

It is an error if the procedure argument of `hash-table-find`

,
`hash-table-count`

, `hash-table-map`

,
`hash-table-for-each`

, `hash-table-map!`

,
`hash-table-map->list`

, `hash-table-fold`

or `hash-table-prune!`

mutates the hash table being walked.

It is an error to pass two hash tables that have different comparators or equality predicates to any of the procedures of this SRFI.

Implementations are permitted to ignore user-specified hash
functions in certain circumstances. Specifically, if the
equality predicate, whether passed as part of a comparator
or explicitly, is more fine-grained (in the sense of R7RS-small
section 6.1) than `equal?`

, the implementation is
free — indeed, is encouraged — to ignore the user-specified
hash function and use something implementation-dependent.
This allows the use of addresses as hashes, in which case
the keys must be rehashed if they are moved by the garbage
collector. Such a hash function is unsafe to use outside
the context of implementation-provided hash tables. It can
of course be exposed by an implementation as an extension,
with suitable warnings against inappropriate uses.

It is an error to mutate a key during or after its insertion into a hash table in such a way that the hash function of the table will return a different result when applied to that key.

- Constructors:
`make-hash-table`

,`hash-table`

,`hash-table-unfold`

,`alist->hash-table`

- Predicates:
`hash-table?`

,`hash-table-contains?`

,`hash-table-exists?`

(deprecated),`hash-table-empty?`

,`hash-table=?`

,`hash-table-mutable?`

- Accessors:
`hash-table-ref`

,`hash-table-ref/default`

- Mutators:
`hash-table-set!`

,`hash-table-delete!`

,`hash-table-intern!`

,`hash-table-update!`

,`hash-table-update!/default`

,`hash-table-pop!`

,`hash-table-clear!`

- The whole hash table:
`hash-table-size`

,`hash-table-keys`

,`hash-table-values`

,`hash-table-entries`

,`hash-table-find`

,`hash-table-count`

- Mapping and folding:
`hash-table-map`

,`hash-table-for-each`

,`hash-table-walk`

(deprecated),`hash-table-map!`

,`hash-table-map->list`

,`hash-table-fold`

,`hash-table-prune!`

- Copying and conversion:
`hash-table-copy`

,`hash-table-empty-copy`

,`hash-table->alist`

- Hash tables as sets:
`hash-table-union!`

,`hash-table-merge!`

(deprecated),`hash-table-intersection!`

,`hash-table-difference!`

,`hash-table-xor!`

- Hash functions and reflectivity (deprecated):
`hash`

,`string-hash`

,`string-ci-hash`

,`hash-by-identity`

,`hash-table-equivalence-function`

,`hash-table-hash-function`

`(make-hash-table `

*comparator* [ *arg* ... ]`)`

`(make-hash-table `

*equality-predicate* [ *hash-function* ] [ *arg* ... ]`)`

Returns a newly allocated hash table whose equality predicate and
hash function are extracted from *comparator*. Alternatively,
for backward compatibility with SRFI 69 the equality predicate and
hash function can be passed as separate arguments; this usage is deprecated.

As mentioned above, implementations are free to use an appropriate
implementation-dependent hash function instead of the
specified hash function, provided that the specified equality predicate
is a refinement of the `equal?`

predicate.
This applies whether the hash function and equality predicate are passed
as separate arguments or packaged up into a comparator.

If an equality predicate rather than a comparator is provided,
the ability to omit the *hash-function* argument is severely
limited. The implementation must provide hash functions appropriate
for use with the predicates `eq?`

, `eqv?`

,
`equal?`

, `string=?`

, and `string-ci=?`

,
and may extend this list. But if any unknown equality predicate is
provided without a hash function, an error should be signaled.
The constraints on equality predicates and hash functions are given in
SRFI 128.

The meaning of any further arguments is implementation-dependent.
However, implementations which support the ability to specify the
initial capacity of a hash table should interpret a non-negative
exact integer as the specification of that capacity. In addition,
if the symbols `thread-safe`

, `weak-keys`

,
`ephemeral-keys`

, `weak-values`

, or
`ephemeral-values`

are present, implementations
should create thread-safe hash tables, hash tables with weak
keys or ephemeral keys, or hash tables with weak or ephemeral
values respectively. Implementations are free to use ephemeral
keys or values when weak keys or values respectively have been
requested. To avoid collision with the *hash-function*
argument, none of these arguments can be procedures.

(R6RS `make-eq-hashtable`

, `make-eqv-hashtable`

,
and `make-hashtable`

; Common Lisp `make-hash-table`

)

`(hash-table `

*comparator* [ *key value* ] ...`)`

Returns a newly allocated hash table, created as if by
`make-hash-table`

using *comparator*.
For each pair of arguments, an association is added to the
new hash table with *key* as its key and *value*
as its value. If the implementation supports immutable hash
tables, this procedure returns an immutable hash table.
If the same key (in the sense of the equality predicate) is
specified more than once, it is an error.

`(hash-table-unfold `

*stop? mapper successor seed comparator arg* ... `)`

Create a new hash table as if by `make-hash-table`

using
*comparator* and the *args*. If the result of applying
the predicate *stop?* to *seed* is true, return the hash
table. Otherwise, apply the procedure *mapper* to *seed*.
*Mapper* returns two values, which are inserted into the hash
table as the key and the value respectively. Then get a new seed by
applying the procedure *successor* to *seed*, and repeat
this algorithm.

`(alist->hash-table `

*alist comparator arg* ...`)`

`(alist->hash-table `

*alist equality-predicate* [ *hash-function* ] *arg* ...`)`

Returns a newly allocated hash-table as if by `make-hash-table`

using *comparator* and the *args*. It is then initialized
from the associations of *alist*. Associations earlier in the
list take precedence over those that come later. The second form is
for compatibility with SRFI 69, and is deprecated.

`(hash-table? `

*obj*`)`

Returns `#t`

if *obj* is a hash table, and
`#f`

otherwise. (R6RS `hashtable?`

;
Common Lisp `hash-table-p`

)

`(hash-table-contains? `

*hash-table key*`)`

`(hash-table-exists? `

*hash-table key*`)`

Returns `#t`

if there is any association to *key*
in *hash-table*, and `#f`

otherwise. Must execute
in expected amortized constant time. The `hash-table-exists?`

procedure is the same as `hash-table-contains?`

, is provided
for backward compatibility with SRFI 69, and is deprecated.
(R6RS `hashtable-contains?`

)

`(hash-table-empty? `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns `#t`

if *hash-table* contains no associations,
and `#f`

otherwise.

`(hash-table=? `

*value-comparator hash-table _{1} hash-table_{2}*

`)`

Returns `#t`

if *hash-table _{1}* and

`#f`

otherwise.
`(hash-table-mutable? `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns `#t`

if the hash table is mutable.
Implementations may or may not support immutable hash tables.
(R6RS `hashtable-mutable?`

)

The following procedures, given a key, return the corresponding value.

`(hash-table-ref `

*hash-table key* [ *failure* [ *success* ] ]`)`

Extracts the value associated to *key* in *hash-table*,
invokes the procedure *success* on it, and returns its result;
if *success* is not provided, then the value itself is returned.
If *key* is not contained in *hash-table* and
*failure* is supplied, then *failure* is invoked
on no arguments and its result is returned. Otherwise, it is
an error. Must execute in expected amortized constant time,
not counting the time to call the procedures. SRFI 69 does
not support the *success* procedure.

`(hash-table-ref/default `

*hash-table key default*`)`

Semantically equivalent to, but may be more efficient than, the following code:

`(hash-table-ref`

hash-table key`(lambda ()`

default`))`

(R6RS `hashtable-ref`

; Common Lisp `gethash`

)

The following procedures alter the associations in a hash table either unconditionally, or conditionally on the presence or absence of a specified key. It is an error to add an association to a hash table whose key does not satisfy the type test predicate of the comparator used to create the hash table.

`(hash-table-set! `

*hash-table* *arg* ...`)`

Repeatedly mutates *hash-table*, creating new associations
in it by processing the arguments from left to right.
The *args* alternate between keys and values. Whenever
there is a previous association for a key, it is deleted. It is
an error if the type check procedure of the comparator of
*hash-table*, when invoked on a key, does not return
`#t`

. Likewise, it is an error if a key is not a
valid argument to the equality predicate of *hash-table*.
Returns an unspecified value. Must execute in expected amortized
constant time per key. SRFI 69, R6RS `hashtable-set!`

and Common Lisp `(setf gethash)`

do not handle multiple
associations.

`(hash-table-delete! `

*hash-table key* ...`)`

Deletes any association to each *key* in *hash-table*
and returns the number of keys that had associations. Must execute
in expected amortized constant time per key. SRFI 69, R6RS
`hashtable-delete!`

, and Common Lisp `remhash`

do not handle multiple associations.

`(hash-table-intern! `

*hash-table key* *failure*`)`

Effectively invokes `hash-table-ref`

with the given
arguments and returns what it returns. If *key* was not
found in *hash-table*, its value is set to the result of
calling *failure*. Must execute in expected amortized constant time.

`(hash-table-update! `

*hash-table key updater* [ *failure* [ *success ] ] )
*

Semantically equivalent to, but may be more efficient than, the following code:

`(hash-table-set!`

hash-table key`(`

updater`(hash-table-ref`

hash-table key failure success`)))`

Must execute in expected amortized constant time. Returns an
unspecified value. (SRFI 69 and R6RS `hashtable-update!`

do not support the *success* procedure)

`(hash-table-update!/default `

*hash-table key updater default*`)`

Semantically equivalent to, but may be more efficient than, the following code:

`(hash-table-set!`

hash-table key`(`

updater`(hash-table-ref/default`

hash-table key default`)))`

Must execute in expected amortized constant time. Returns an unspecified value.

`(hash-table-pop! `

*hash-table*`)`

Chooses an arbitrary association from *hash-table* and removes
it, returning the key and value as two values.

It is an error if *hash-table* is empty.

`(hash-table-clear! `

*hash-table*`)`

Delete all the associations from *hash-table*.
(R6RS `hashtable-clear!`

; Common Lisp `clrhash`

)

These procedures process the associations of the hash table in an unspecified order.

`(hash-table-size `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns the number of associations in *hash-table* as an
exact integer. Should execute in constant time.
(R6RS `hashtable-size`

; Common Lisp `hash-table-count`

.)

`(hash-table-keys `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns a newly allocated list of all the keys in *hash-table*.
R6RS `hashtable-keys`

returns a vector.

`(hash-table-values `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns a newly allocated list of all the keys in *hash-table*.

`(hash-table-entries `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns two values, a newly allocated list of all the keys in
*hash-table* and a newly allocated list of all the values
in *hash-table* in the corresponding order. R6RS
`hash-table-entries`

returns vectors.

`(hash-table-find `

*proc hash-table failure*`)`

For each association of *hash-table*, invoke *proc*
on its key and value. If *proc* returns true, then
`hash-table-find`

returns what *proc* returns.
If all the calls to *proc* return `#f`

, return
the result of invoking the thunk *failure*.

`(hash-table-count `

*pred hash-table*`)`

For each association of *hash-table*, invoke *pred*
on its key and value. Return the number of calls to *pred*
which returned true.

These procedures process the associations of the hash table in an unspecified order.

`(hash-table-map `

*proc comparator hash-table*`)`

Returns a newly allocated hash table as if by
`(make-hash-table `

*comparator*`)`

.
Calls *proc* for every association in *hash-table*
with the value of the association. The key of the association
and the result of invoking *proc* are entered into the
new hash table. Note that this is *not* the result of
lifting mapping over the domain of hash tables, but it is
considered more useful.

If *comparator* recognizes multiple keys in the *hash-table*
as equivalent, any one of such associations is taken.

`(hash-table-for-each `

*proc hash-table*`)`

`(hash-table-walk `

*hash-table proc*`)`

Calls *proc* for every association in *hash-table*
with two arguments: the key of the association and the value of
the association. The value returned by *proc* is discarded.
Returns an unspecified value. The `hash-table-walk`

procedure is equivalent to `hash-table-for-each`

with
the arguments reversed, is provided for backward compatibility
with SRFI 69, and is deprecated. (Common Lisp `maphash`

)

`(hash-table-map! `

*proc hash-table*`)`

Calls *proc* for every association in *hash-table*
with two arguments: the key of the association and the value of
the association. The value returned by *proc* is used to
update the value of the association. Returns an unspecified value.

`(hash-table-map->list `

*proc hash-table*`)`

Calls *proc* for every association in *hash-table*
with two arguments: the key of the association and the value of
the association. The values returned by the invocations of
*proc* are accumulated into a list, which is returned.

`(hash-table-fold `

*proc seed hash-table*`)`

`(hash-table-fold `

*hash-table proc seed*`)`

Calls *proc* for every association in *hash-table*
with three arguments: the key of the association, the value of
the association, and an accumulated value *val*.
*Val* is *seed* for the first invocation of
*procedure*, and for subsequent invocations of *proc*,
the returned value of the previous invocation. The value returned
by `hash-table-fold`

is the return value of the last
invocation of *proc*. The order of arguments with
*hash-table* as the first argument is provided for
SRFI 69 compatibility, and is deprecated.

`(hash-table-prune! `

*proc hash-table*`)`

Calls *proc* for every association in *hash-table*
with two arguments, the key and the value of the association, and
removes all associations from *hash-table* for which
*proc* returns true. Returns an unspecified value.

`(hash-table-copy `

*hash-table* [ *mutable?* ]`)`

Returns a newly allocated hash table with the same properties
and associations as *hash-table*. If the second argument
is present and is true, the new hash table is mutable. Otherwise
it is immutable provided that the implementation supports immutable
hash tables. SRFI 69 `hash-table-copy`

does not support
a second argument. (R6RS `hashtable-copy`

)

`(hash-table-empty-copy `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns a newly allocated mutable hash table with the same properties
as *hash-table*, but with no associations.

`(hash-table->alist `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns an alist with the same associations as *hash-table*
in an unspecified order.

`(hash-table-union! `

*hash-table _{1} hash-table_{2}*

`)`

`(hash-table-merge! `

*hash-table _{1} hash-table_{2}*

`)`

Adds the associations of *hash-table _{2}* to

`hash-table-merge!`

procedure is the same as `hash-table-union!`

, is provided
for compatibility with SRFI 69, and is deprecated.
`(hash-table-intersection! `

*hash-table _{1} hash-table_{2}*

`)`

Deletes the associations from *hash-table _{1}*
whose keys don't also appear in

`(hash-table-difference! `

*hash-table _{1} hash-table_{2}*

`)`

Deletes the associations of *hash-table _{1}* whose
keys are also present in

`(hash-table-xor! `

*hash-table _{1} hash-table_{2}*

`)`

Deletes the associations of *hash-table _{1}* whose
keys are also present in

These functions are made part of this SRFI solely for compatibility with SRFI 69, and are deprecated.

`(hash `

*obj*` [ `

*arg*` ] )`

The same as SRFI 128's `default-hash`

procedure,
except that it must accept (and should ignore) an optional second argument.

`(string-hash `

*obj*` [ `

*arg*` ] )`

Similar to SRFI 128's `string-hash`

procedure,
except that it must accept (and should ignore) an optional second argument.
It is incompatible with the procedure of the same name exported by SRFI 128
and SRFI 126.

`(string-ci-hash `

*obj*` [ `

*arg*` ] )`

Similar to SRFI 128's `string-ci-hash`

procedure,
except that it must accept (and should ignore) an optional second argument.
It is incompatible with the procedure of the same name exported by SRFI 128
and SRFI 126.

`(hash-by-identity `

*obj*` [ `

*arg*` ] )`

The same as SRFI 128's `default-hash`

procedure,
except that it must accept (and should ignore) an optional second argument.
However, if the implementation replaces the hash function associated
with the `eq?`

predicate with an implementation-dependent
alternative, it is an error to call this procedure at all.

`(hash-table-equivalence-function `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns the equivalence procedure used to create *hash-table*.

`(hash-table-hash-function `

*hash-table*`)`

Returns the hash function used to create *hash-table*.
However, if the implementation has replaced the user-specified
hash function with an implementation-specific alternative, the
implementation may return `#f`

instead.

The current sample implementation is in the code repository of this SRFI. It relies upon SRFI 126 and SRFI 128, but the sample implementation for SRFI 126 is easily layered over any hash table implementation that supports either SRFI 69 or R6RS.

The sample implementation of this SRFI never calls any hash function with two arguments.

The original intention was to make it possible to implement this SRFI on top of all the native hash table systems mentioned in Sources above as well. However, this turned out not to be practical for the following reasons:

- Gauche does not support arbitrary equality predicates, only
`eq?`

,`eqv?`

,`equal?`

, and`string=?`

.

- S7 does not support arbitrary equality predicates: the implementation chooses a predicate based on the nature of the keys.

- SISC, Scheme48/scsh, RScheme, Scheme 9, and Rep do not document any way of inspecting a hash table to determine its equality predicates and hash functions so that it can be re-created.

- SLIB hash tables are vectors, not disjoint objects.

- FemtoLisp supports only
`equal?`

as the equality predicate.

Native Guile hash tables are a special case. The equivalents of
`hash-table-ref/default`

, `hash-table-set!`

,
and `hash-table-delete`

require the equality predicate
and hash function to be passed to them explicitly (although there
are utility functions for `eq?`

, `eqv?`

,
and `equal?`

hash tables). Consequently, hash tables
corresponding to this SRFI would have to be records containing a
Guile hash table, an equality predicate, and a hash function,
which means they could not interoperate directly with native
Guile hash tables.

Some of the language of this SRFI is copied from SRFI 69 with thanks to its author, Panu Kalliokoski. However, he is not responsible for what I have done with it. Thanks to Will Clinger for providing the sample implementation, and to Taylan Ulrich Bayırlı/Kammer for his spirited review.

I also acknowledge the members of the SRFI 125, 126, and 128 mailing lists, especially Takashi Kato, Alex Shinn, Shiro Kawai, and Per Bothner.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Editor: Arthur A. Gleckler Last modified: Sat, May 7, 2016 9:57:02 PM