Title

Basic String Ports

Author

William D Clinger

Status

This SRFI is currently in ``final'' status. To see an explanation of each status that a SRFI can hold, see here. You can access the discussion via the archive of the mailing list.

Abstract

Scheme's i/o primitives are extended by adding three new procedures that

Issues

None.

Rationale

Scheme's procedures for performing input and output from and to ports become more useful when extended by string ports. The interface described here has been in use since 1986 or before, and is currently supported by several of the major implementations.

Specification

This specification is taken from the MacScheme Reference Manual.
(OPEN-INPUT-STRING string)                            ;procedure
Takes a string and returns an input port that delivers characters from the string. The port can be closed by CLOSE-INPUT-PORT, though its storage will be reclaimed by the garbage collector if it becomes inaccessible.
        (define p
          (open-input-string "(a . (b . (c . ()))) 34"))

        (input-port? p)                 -->  #t
        (read p)                        -->  (a b c)
        (read p)                        -->  34
        (eof-object? (peek-char p))     -->  #t
(OPEN-OUTPUT-STRING)                                  ;procedure
Returns an output port that will accumulate characters for retrieval by GET-OUTPUT-STRING. The port can be closed by the procedure CLOSE-OUTPUT-PORT, though its storage will be reclaimed by the garbage collector if it becomes inaccessible.
        (let ((q (open-output-string))
              (x '(a b c)))
          (write (car x) q)
          (write (cdr x) q)
          (get-output-string q))        -->  "a(b c)"
(GET-OUTPUT-STRING output-port)                       ;procedure
Given an output port created by OPEN-OUTPUT-STRING, returns a string consisting of the characters that have been output to the port so far.

Implementation

What follows is just an outline of how these procedures might be implemented, because a real implementation would also have to redefine READ, WRITE, and so forth to use PEEK-CHAR, READ-CHAR, and WRITE-CHAR as redefined below.

Since the code for READ and WRITE would be identical to code that already exists in any implementation, however, it should not be necessary for this SRFI to include that code within this SRFI. Including it would only detract from the readability of this implementation.

; This implementation is not IEEE- or R5RS-compliant,
; for the following reasons:
;
; This implementation does not redefine procedures
; like READ, WRITE, DISPLAY, and NEWLINE to ensure
; that they use the redefined PEEK-CHAR, READ-CHAR,
; WRITE-CHAR, and so forth.  That should be easy
; for an implementor to do, however.
;
; This implementation obtains an end-of-file object
; by reading a Unix-specific file, /dev/null.

(define open-input-string 0)  ; assigned below
(define open-output-string 0) ; assigned below
(define get-output-string 0)  ; assigned below

; We have to remember the original procedures before
; we can define new ones.

(define ur-vector? vector?)
(define ur-vector-length vector-length)
(define ur-vector-ref vector-ref)
(define ur-vector-set! vector-set!)
(define ur-input-port? input-port?)
(define ur-output-port? output-port?)
(define ur-close-input-port close-input-port)
(define ur-close-output-port close-output-port)
(define ur-peek-char peek-char)
(define ur-read-char read-char)
(define ur-write-char write-char)

; IEEE/ANSI Scheme insists that we define any global
; variables that we are going to assign.  R5RS Scheme
; apparently does not require this.

(define vector? vector?)
(define vector-length vector-length)
(define vector-ref vector-ref)
(define vector-set! vector-set!)
(define input-port? input-port?)
(define output-port? output-port?)
(define close-input-port close-input-port)
(define close-output-port close-output-port)
(define peek-char peek-char)
(define read-char read-char)
(define write-char write-char)

(let ((ur-vector? ur-vector?)
      (ur-vector-length ur-vector-length)
      (ur-vector-ref ur-vector-ref)
      (ur-vector-set! ur-vector-set!)
      (ur-input-port? ur-input-port?)
      (ur-output-port? ur-output-port?)
      (ur-close-input-port ur-close-input-port)
      (ur-close-output-port ur-close-output-port)
      (ur-peek-char ur-peek-char)
      (ur-read-char ur-read-char)
      (ur-write-char ur-write-char)
      (eof (call-with-input-file "/dev/null" read-char))
      (input-string-tag (list 'input-string-tag))
      (output-string-tag (list 'output-string-tag)))
  
  (define (error)
    (display "You're not supposed to do that!")
    (newline)
    (if #f #f))
  
  (define (restrict f pred?)
    (lambda (x . rest)
      (if (pred? x)
          (apply f x rest)
          (error))))
  
  (define (my-vector? x)
    (and (ur-vector? x)
         (not (input-string? x))
         (not (output-string? x))))
  
  (define (input-string? x)
    (and (ur-vector? x)
         (positive? (ur-vector-length x))
         (eq? input-string-tag (ur-vector-ref x 0))))
  
  (define (output-string? x)
    (and (ur-vector? x)
         (positive? (ur-vector-length x))
         (eq? output-string-tag (ur-vector-ref x 0))))
  
  (define (selector pred? i)
    (lambda (x)
      (if (pred? x)
          (ur-vector-ref x i)
          (error))))
  
  (define (setter pred? i)
    (lambda (x y)
      (if (pred? x)
          (begin (ur-vector-set! x i y)
                 (if #f #f))
          (error))))
  
  (set! vector?       my-vector?)
  (set! vector-length (restrict ur-vector-length my-vector?))
  (set! vector-ref    (restrict ur-vector-ref  my-vector?))
  (set! vector-set!   (restrict ur-vector-set! my-vector?))
  
  (let ()
    
    ; The guts of the implementation begin here.
    
    (define (make-input-string s)
      (vector input-string-tag #t s (string-length s) 0))
    
    (define input-string:open?  (selector input-string? 1))
    (define input-string:open?! (setter   input-string? 1))
    (define input-string:string (selector input-string? 2))
    (define input-string:size   (selector input-string? 3))
    (define input-string:next   (selector input-string? 4))
    (define input-string:next!  (setter   input-string? 4))
    
    (define (make-output-string)
      (vector output-string-tag #t '()))
    
    (define output-string:open?     (selector output-string? 1))
    (define output-string:open?!    (setter   output-string? 1))
    (define output-string:contents  (selector output-string? 2))
    (define output-string:contents! (setter   output-string? 2))
    
    (set! open-input-string make-input-string)
    (set! open-output-string make-output-string)
    (set! get-output-string
          (lambda (x)
            (list->string (reverse (output-string:contents x)))))
    
    (set! input-port?
          (lambda (x)
            (or (ur-input-port? x)
                (input-string? x))))
    
    (set! output-port?
          (lambda (x)
            (or (ur-output-port? x)
                (output-string? x))))
    
    (set! close-input-port
          (lambda (x)
            (if (input-string? x)
                (input-string:open?! x #f)
                (ur-close-input-port x))))
    
    (set! close-output-port
          (lambda (x)
            (if (output-string? x)
                (output-string:open?! x #f)
                (ur-close-output-port x))))
    
    (set! peek-char
          (lambda args
            (if (null? args)
                (ur-peek-char)
                (let ((x (car args)))
                  (if (input-string? x)
                      (let ((s (input-string:string x))
                            (i (input-string:next x))
                            (n (input-string:size x)))
                        (if (input-string:open? x)
                            (if (< i n)
                                (string-ref s i)
                                eof)
                            (error)))
                      (ur-peek-char x))))))
    
    (set! read-char
          (lambda args
            (if (null? args)
                (ur-read-char)
                (let ((x (car args)))
                  (if (input-string? x)
                      (let ((s (input-string:string x))
                            (i (input-string:next x))
                            (n (input-string:size x)))
                        (if (input-string:open? x)
                            (if (< i n)
                                (let ((c (string-ref s i)))
                                  (input-string:next! x (+ i 1))
                                  c)
                                eof)
                            (error)))
                      (ur-read-char x))))))
    
    (set! write-char
          (lambda (c . rest)
            (if (null? rest)
                (ur-write-char c)
                (let ((x (car rest)))
                  (if (output-string? x)
                      (if (output-string:open? x)
                          (output-string:contents!
                           x
                           (cons c (output-string:contents x)))
                          (error))
                      (ur-write-char c x))))))
    
    (if #f #f)))

Copyright

Copyright (C) William D Clinger (1999). All Rights Reserved.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


Editor: Mike Sperber
Last modified: Fri Aug 7 09:46:28 MST 2009