Title

Exception Handling for Programs

Authors

Richard Kelsey and Michael Sperber

Status

This SRFI is currently in ``final'' status. To see an explanation of each status that a SRFI can hold, see here. It will remain in draft until 2002-10-20, or as amended. to provide input on this SRFI, please mail to srfi minus 34 at srfi dot schemers dot org. See instructions here to subscribe to the list. You can access the discussion via the archive of the mailing list. You can access post-finalization messages via the archive of the mailing list.

Abstract

This SRFI defines exception-handling and exception-raising constructs for Scheme, including

This SRFI is based on (withdrawn) SRFI 12: Exception Handling by William Clinger, R. Kent Dybvig, Matthew Flatt, and Marc Feeley.

Rationale

The goals of the exception mechanism specified in this SRFI are to help programmers share code which relies on exception handling, and to be easily added to existing Scheme systems.

This SRFI is primarily useful in conjunction with one or more companion SRFIs:

Specification

Exception handlers are one-argument procedures that determine the action the program takes when an exceptional situation is signalled. The system implicitly maintains a current exception handler.

The program raises an exception by invoking the current exception handler, passing to it an object encapsulating information about the exception. Any procedure accepting one argument may serve as an exception handler and any object may be used to represent an exception.

The system maintains the current exception handler as part of the dynamic environment of the program, akin to the current input or output port, or the context for dynamic-wind. The dynamic environment can be thought of as that part of a continuation that does not specify the destination of any returned values. It includes the current input and output ports, the dynamic-wind context, and this SRFI's current exception handler. See the reference implementation for portable definitions of current-dynamic-environment and with-dynamic-environment.

The initial current exception handler of the program is implementation-dependent. However, it should interrupt the program in some way visible to the user, either by aborting it, invoking a debugger, or some similar action.

Establishing Exception Handlers

(with-exception-handler handler thunk)

Returns the result(s) of invoking thunk. Handler must be a procedure that accepts one argument. It is installed as the current exception handler for the dynamic extent (as determined by dynamic-wind) of the invocation of thunk.

(guard ( <var> <clause1 > <clause2 > ...) <body>) (syntax)

Syntax: Each <clause> should have the same form as a cond clause

Semantics: Evaluating a guard form evaluates <body> with an exception handler that binds the raised object to <var> and within the scope of that binding evaluates the clauses as if they were the clauses of a cond expression. That implicit cond expression is evaluated with the continuation and dynamic environment of the guard expression. If every <clause>'s <test> evaluates to false and there is no else clause, then raise is re-invoked on the raised object within the dynamic environment of the original call to raise except that the current exception handler is that of the guard expression.

Raising Exceptions

(raise obj)

Invokes the current exception handler on obj. The handler is called in the dynamic environment of the call to raise, except that the current exception handler is that in place for the call to with-exception-handler that installed the handler being called. The handler's continuation is otherwise unspecified.

Examples

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (k)
   (with-exception-handler (lambda (x)
                             (display "condition: ")
                             (write x)
                             (newline)
                             (k 'exception))
     (lambda ()
       (+ 1 (raise 'an-error))))))
PRINTS: condition: an-error
=> exception

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (k)
   (with-exception-handler (lambda (x)
                             (display "something went wrong")
                             (newline)
                             'dont-care)
     (lambda ()
       (+ 1 (raise 'an-error))))))
PRINTS: something went wrong
then behaves in an unspecified way

(guard (condition
         (else
          (display "condition: ")
          (write condition)
          (newline)
          'exception))
  (+ 1 (raise 'an-error)))
PRINTS: condition: an-error
=> exception

(guard (condition
         (else
          (display "something went wrong")
          (newline)
          'dont-care))
 (+ 1 (raise 'an-error)))
PRINTS: something went wrong
=> dont-care

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (k)
   (with-exception-handler (lambda (x)
                             (display "reraised ") (write x) (newline)
                             (k 'zero))
     (lambda ()
       (guard (condition
                ((positive? condition) 'positive)
                ((negative? condition) 'negative))
        (raise 1))))))
=> positive

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (k)
   (with-exception-handler (lambda (x)
                             (display "reraised ") (write x) (newline)
                             (k 'zero))
     (lambda ()
       (guard (condition
                ((positive? condition) 'positive)
                ((negative? condition) 'negative))
        (raise -1))))))
=> negative

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (k)
   (with-exception-handler (lambda (x)
                             (display "reraised ") (write x) (newline)
                             (k 'zero))
     (lambda ()
       (guard (condition
                ((positive? condition) 'positive)
                ((negative? condition) 'negative))
        (raise 0))))))
PRINTS: reraised 0
=> zero

(guard (condition
         ((assq 'a condition) => cdr)
         ((assq 'b condition)))
  (raise (list (cons 'a 42))))
=> 42

(guard (condition
         ((assq 'a condition) => cdr)
         ((assq 'b condition)))
  (raise (list (cons 'b 23))))
=> (b . 23)

Reference Implementation

The reference implementation makes use of SRFI 9 ("Defining Record Types"), and SRFI 23 ("Error reporting mechanism").

(define *current-exception-handlers*
  (list (lambda (condition)
          (error "unhandled exception" condition))))

(define (with-exception-handler handler thunk)
  (with-exception-handlers (cons handler *current-exception-handlers*)
                           thunk))

(define (with-exception-handlers new-handlers thunk)
  (let ((previous-handlers *current-exception-handlers*))
    (dynamic-wind
      (lambda ()
        (set! *current-exception-handlers* new-handlers))
      thunk
      (lambda ()
        (set! *current-exception-handlers* previous-handlers)))))

(define (raise obj)
  (let ((handlers *current-exception-handlers*))
    (with-exception-handlers (cdr handlers)
      (lambda ()
        ((car handlers) obj)
        (error "handler returned"
               (car handlers)
               obj)))))

(define-syntax guard
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((guard (var clause ...) e1 e2 ...)
     ((call-with-current-continuation
       (lambda (guard-k)
         (with-exception-handler
          (lambda (condition)
            ((call-with-current-continuation
               (lambda (handler-k)
                 (guard-k
                  (lambda ()
                    (let ((var condition))      ; clauses may SET! var
                      (guard-aux (handler-k (lambda ()
                                              (raise condition)))
                                 clause ...))))))))
          (lambda ()
            (call-with-values
             (lambda () e1 e2 ...)
             (lambda args
               (guard-k (lambda ()
                          (apply values args)))))))))))))

(define-syntax guard-aux
  (syntax-rules (else =>)
    ((guard-aux reraise (else result1 result2 ...))
     (begin result1 result2 ...))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test => result))
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp 
           (result temp)
           reraise)))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test => result) clause1 clause2 ...)
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           (result temp)
           (guard-aux reraise clause1 clause2 ...))))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test))
     test)
    ((guard-aux reraise (test) clause1 clause2 ...)
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           temp
           (guard-aux reraise clause1 clause2 ...))))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test result1 result2 ...))
     (if test
         (begin result1 result2 ...)
         reraise))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test result1 result2 ...) clause1 clause2 ...)
     (if test
         (begin result1 result2 ...)
         (guard-aux reraise clause1 clause2 ...)))))

References

Copyright

Copyright (C) Richard Kelsey, Michael Sperber (2002). All Rights Reserved.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


Editor: Francisco Solsona